Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

We follow Roeleveld (1988) in considering this subfamily to be united by the modifications of the hectocotylus. The genus Todaropsis has been considered by some authors to belong in the subfamily Illicinae, in spite of a club dactylus with suckers in only four series, because of the lack of foveola in the funnel grove.

Brief diagnosis:

an ommastrephid ...

  • without photophores.
  • without carpal locking apparatus on tentacular club.
  • with foveola (except Todaropsis) but without side pockets.
  • with thickened trabeculae on distal ventral protective membrane of hectocotylus.

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Hectocotylus with enlarged distal ventral protective membrane with thickened trabeculae producing a picketed effect.

      Figure. Oral views of hectocotylized left or right ventral arms of representatives of Todarodinae genera. A - Todarodes filippovae, distal part of right arm IV. B - Todarodes pacificus, distal part of right arm. C - Martialia hyadesi, distal part of right arm IV. D - Notodarus sloani, distal part of right arm IV. E - Notodarus gouldi, distal part of right arm IV. F - Todaropsis eblanae, distal part of right arm IV. v - Ventral side of arm. Drawings from Roeleveld (1988).

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacular club with dactylus suckers in four series.
    2. Carpal locking-apparatus absent.

      Figure. Oral view of the tentacular club of N. hawaiiensis, 80 mm ML, Philippine waters. Drawing from Voss (1963).

  3. Head
    1. Funnel groove usually with anterior foveola (absent in Todaropsis) and without side pockets.

      Figure. Left - Ventral view of the funnel groove comparing modifications in two of the subfamilies. Drawing modified from Roper, et al. (1985). Right - Photograph of the funnel groove of Nototodarus hawaiiensis showing foveola (arrow) without side pockets. Photograph by R. Young.

  4. Photophores
    1. Photophores absent.

Table. Comparison of genera of Todarodinae

Hectocotylus Funnel groove with foveola
Tentacular stalks with free trabeculae
Largest manus sucker with
Largest manus sucker with teeth
Martialia Left or right arm IV Yes Yes one tooth enlarged linked by intermediate ridges or plates.
Todarodes Right arm IV Yes No generally subequal teeth
linked by intermediate ridges or plates.
Nototodarus Both arms IV Yes
No one tooth enlarged or subequal teeth linked by intermediate ridges or plates.
Todaropsis Both arms IV No No subequal teeth without intermediate ridges or plates

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 1043 specimens in 6 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 881 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 2665
  Temperature range (°C): 3.232 - 17.485
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.440 - 35.221
  Salinity (PPS): 33.984 - 38.681
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.685 - 7.163
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.191 - 2.571
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.328 - 44.377

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 2665

Temperature range (°C): 3.232 - 17.485

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.440 - 35.221

Salinity (PPS): 33.984 - 38.681

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.685 - 7.163

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.191 - 2.571

Silicate (umol/l): 1.328 - 44.377
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 2
Specimens with Sequences: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Public Records: 1
Public Species: 1
Public BINs: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Todarodinae

Todarodinae is a squid subfamily in the family Ommastrephidae.

Genera

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

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