Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Among cephalopods, oegopsid squids dominate the pelagic, oceanic environment. Diversity at the family and generic levels is very high with 24 families and 69 genera. Although pelagic, some species are consistently associated with and some occasionally sit on the ocean floor.

Diagnosis

Decapodiforms ...

  • without cornea covering eyes.
  • with a gladius.

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Suckers without circularis muscles.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacular club usually with carpal (= proximal) locking-apparatus.
    2. Figure. Oral view of the club base of Cycloteuthis serventyi. The red line encircles the suckers and knobs of the carpal locking-apparatus. Drawing modified from Young and Roper (1969).

    3. Suckers without circularis muscles (see Sepioidea page).

  3. Buccal crown
    1. Buccal supports lack suckers.

  4. Head
    1. Head without tentacle pockets.
    2. Eyes without corneal membranes covering lenses.

      Figure. Dorsal view of the head of Pyroteuthis addolux with the protruding eye lenses directly exposed to sea water. Photograph by R. Young.

  5. Funnel
    1. Funnel without lateral adductor muscles.

  6. Mantle
    1. Mantle locking-apparatus, with rare exceptions, reaches anterior mantle margin.

  7. Fins
    1. Fins usually joined posteriorly and usually without posterior lobes.

      Figure. Ventral view of mantle and fins of Ancistroteuthis lichtensteini, 175 mm ML, Mar-Eco cruise, R/V G. O. SARS, North Atlantic. Photograph by R. Young.

  8. Shell
    1. Shell a gladius.

  9. Viscera
    1. Gills with branchial canal.

      Figure. Diagramatic cross-section through gills. Drawing modified from Naef (1921-23).

    2. Oviducts paired.
    3. Females without accessory nidamental glands.

  10. Eggs
    1. Eggs in pelagic egg masses.

Comments

Comparisons of the major groups of the Oegopsida

Buccal connective to arms IV Funnel locking-cartilage Carpal locking-apparatus Gladius conus Anterior fin attachment
Architeuthidae Dorsal Straight Yes 1° conus Mantle
Brachioteuthidae Ventral Straight Yes/No 2° conus Gladius
Chiroteuthid families Ventral Variable, usually oval, often with knobs No 2° conus Gladius
Cranchiidae Ventral Fused Yes 2° conus /No Gladius/Mantle
Cycloteuthidae Ventral Triangular Yes 2° conus /No Gladius
Enoploteuthid families Dorsal Straight Yes 1° conus Gladius
Gonatidae Ventral Straight Yes 1° conus Gladius
Histioteuthidae families Dorsal Straight Yes No Gladius
Lepidoteuthidae families Ventral Straight No 2° conus Gladius
Neoteuthidae Dorsal Straight Yes 1° conus Mantle
Ommastrephidae Dorsal Inverted T Yes/No 1° conus Gladius
Onychoteuthidae Ventral Straight Yes 1° conus Gladius
Thysanoteuthidae Ventral Lazy T Yes No Mantle

A key to the families of the Decapodiformes can be found here.

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Classification

Contains most squids except Loliginidae.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 964
Specimens with Sequences: 850
Specimens with Barcodes: 780
Species: 149
Species With Barcodes: 137
Public Records: 650
Public Species: 107
Public BINs: 131
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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