Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Myopsid squids are neritic, often in very shallow water, or upper slope demersal species. Many species are strong swimmers, occur in large schools and are fished commercially for food. The Loliginidae contains many species some of which reach a rather large size (at least 90 cm ML in Loligo forbesii) but those in Pickfordiateuthis, are dwarf species where males may mature at less than 14 mm ML (Brachoniecki, 1996). The Australiteuthidae contains a single species that is also a dwarf with males that mature as small as 17 mm ML (Lu, 2005).

Brief diagnosis:

A decapodiform ...

  • with corneal membranes covering eye lenses.
  • without secondary eyelids.
  • with well-developed gladius.

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Suckers of arms (and tentacles) with circularis muscles (unknown in Australiteuthidae).

  2. Tentacles
    1. Club without proximal (= carpal) locking-apparatus.
    2. Figure. Oral view of the tentacular club of Loligo plei, 105 mm ML, preserved. Photograph by R. Young.

  3. Head
    1. Head with tentacle pocket.
    2. Eyes with corneal membranes covering lenses.
    3. Eyes without secondary (= ventral) eyelid.
    4. Figure. Left - Dorsal view of the head of Sepioteuthis sp. (Loliginidae) showing cornea covering lens. Photograph by Mark Norman. Right - Ventrolateral view of the head of Lollicuncula diomedeae showing the absence of a ventral eyelid. Photograph by R. Young.

  4. Funnel
    1. Funnel without lateral adductor muscles.

  5. Mantle
    1. Mantle locking-apparatus extends to mantle edge (except Australiteuthidae).

  6. Shell
    1. Shell a gladius, extending the full length of the mantle.

  7. Viscera
    1. Gills with branchial canal (except Pickfordiateuthis, unknown in Australiteuthis).
    2. Right oviduct absent.
    3. Females with accessory nidamental glands.
    4. Figure. Diagramatic cross-section through gills. Drawing modified from Naef (1921-23).

  8. Eggs
    1. Eggs, where known, attached to substrate.
    2. Embryo with large external yolk sac.

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

View Myopsida Tree

The two families of the Myopsida appear to be closely related. The Australiteuthidae differs from the Loliginidae primarily in the structure of the funnel/mantle locking-apparatus and the position of the mantle component which does not reach the mantle margin. A number of features of phylogenetic importance in the Australiteuthidae, however, are not known: the presence or absence of a branchial canal, an anterior eye pocket, circularis muscles in the suckers, an interstellate connective; the location of spermathecae; the symmetry of the gills; the type and place (pelagic or benthic) of deposition of egg masses and the position of the intestine relative to the cephalic vein and the vena cavae.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:639Public Records:483
Specimens with Sequences:600Public Species:28
Specimens with Barcodes:596Public BINs:38
Species:33         
Species With Barcodes:28         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Myopsida

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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