Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 71 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 67 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 121.5
  Temperature range (°C): -1.901 - 0.548
  Nitrate (umol/L): 22.800 - 31.654
  Salinity (PPS): 33.622 - 34.455
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.862 - 8.072
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.189 - 2.157
  Silicate (umol/l): 21.227 - 67.140

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 121.5

Temperature range (°C): -1.901 - 0.548

Nitrate (umol/L): 22.800 - 31.654

Salinity (PPS): 33.622 - 34.455

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.862 - 8.072

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.189 - 2.157

Silicate (umol/l): 21.227 - 67.140
 
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Wikipedia

Clione antarctica

Clione antarctica is a species of "sea angel", a sea slug, a pelagic marine gastropod mollusk in the family Clionidae, the "sea angels".

Distribution[edit source | edit]

The distribution of Clione antarctica is within the Southern Hemisphere, in the polar waters of Antarctica.[1][2]

Description[edit source | edit]

The length of this species is 4.2 cm.[citation needed]

Ecology[edit source | edit]

Clione antarctica is an important component of polar ecosystems. It preys upon Limacina antarctica[1] It is itself eaten by the medusa Diplulmaris antarctica.[3] C. antarctica has a large lipid storage capacity: up to 5% of its wet mass.[4] It is able to survive without food for about six months by utilizing these lipid storage reserves.[4] Clione antarctica lays eggs in the spring.[4]

This species defends itself from predators by synthesizing an ichthyodeterrent (a chemical that deters fishes); this is a previously unknown molecule called pteroenone.[5] The sea angel acts as a "guest" for the hyperiid amphipod Hyperiella dilatata, which takes advantage of the protection provided by the gastropod's icthyodeterrent.[5]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b k., W.; d., K.; j., H. (2001). "Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in phytoplankton, a herbivorous pteropod ( Limacina helicina ), and its pteropod predator ( Clione antarctica ) in McMurdo Bay, Antarctica". Marine Biology 139 (5): 1013. doi:10.1007/s002270100654. 
  2. ^ Rudman W. B. (11 January 2006). "Clione antarctica (Smith, 1902)". Sea Slug Forum. accessed 2 February 2011.
  3. ^ Larson, R. J.; Harbison, G. R. (1990). "Medusae from Mcmurdo Sound, Ross Sea including the descriptions of two new species, Leuckartiara brownei and Benthocodon hyalinus". Polar Biology 11. doi:10.1007/BF00236517. 
  4. ^ a b c Seibel, B. A.; Dierssen, H. M. (2003). "Cascading trophic impacts of reduced biomass in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Just the tip of the iceberg?". The Biological bulletin 205 (2): 93–97. PMID 14583506. .
  5. ^ a b Yoshida, W. Y., Bryan, P. J., Baker, B. J., and McClintock, J. B. (1995) Pteroenone: A Defensive Metabolite of the Abducted Antarctic Pteropod Clione antarctica. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 60: 780-782
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