Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (12) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

azooxanthellate
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Typical growth pattern is to form small, encrusting groups of 1/2 inch polyps which often do not appear to be connected. Algae, sponges and other organisms overgrow colonies, making polyps somewhat inconspicuous. This species is often found in dark recesses. Color ranges from red-brown to yellow-brown.Grows to depths of 100 feet; however, it is most commonly found in water less than 60 feet deep.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology: Skeleton

More info
AuthorSkeleton?Mineral or Organic?MineralPercent Magnesium
Cairns, 2000 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Cairns, 1978 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Cairns, Hoeksema, and van der Land, 1999 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Cairns, Hoeksema, and van der Land, 1999 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Hubbard and Wells, 1986 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Hexacorallians of the World

Source: Hexacorallians of the World

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

P. americana occurs along the Florida coast and throughout the West Indies. It may also occur to North Carolina, but this extent of its range is questionable. P. americana is typically found on nearshore reefs off coastal Florida, and around inlet areas throughout the Indian River Lagoon.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.0 of 5

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Widespread distribution in the tropical western Atlantic, including the Gulf of Mexico, southern Florida, Bahamas, Belize, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Brazil.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.0 of 5

Physical Description

Size

Typical cup diameter size for Phyllangia americana is 10 mm (1/2 inch).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: Depth range cited from 1-25 m and is common on fringing reefs and deeper intermediate reefs (> 10 m).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 198 specimens in 3 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 76 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 793
  Temperature range (°C): 9.219 - 27.707
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.271 - 18.404
  Salinity (PPS): 35.250 - 37.326
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.489 - 5.543
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.043 - 1.144
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.993 - 10.334

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 793

Temperature range (°C): 9.219 - 27.707

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.271 - 18.404

Salinity (PPS): 35.250 - 37.326

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.489 - 5.543

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.043 - 1.144

Silicate (umol/l): 0.993 - 10.334
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

SEDENTARY

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Dispersal

Depth range

0-55 m
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: Information is needed on the number of occurrences in the tropical western Atlantic.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Abundance

1000 - 2500 individuals

Comments: Generally restricted to shallower (< 25 m) hardbottom community classes, including patch reefs, fringing reefs and intermediate reefs.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Phyllangia americana is considered common on ledges in Indian River Lagoon Inlets and the Intracoastal Waterway.Locomotion: Sessile.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Little information on life history strategies from resources consulted.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Widespread distribution in the tropical western Atlantic but is generally restricted to shallower hardbottom communities. No specific threats cited and little information on life history strategies.

Other Considerations: Quantitative habitat data derived from other stony coral species. No quantitative abundance data found in resources consulted.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Information is needed on the status and trend of extant populations.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Degree of Threat: D : Unthreatened throughout its range, communities may be threatened in minor portions of the range or degree of variation falls within natural variation

Comments: No specific threats cited in resources consulted, but severe sedimentation may pose the greatest threat.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Biological Research Needs: Data needed on colony growth, reproduction and recruitment. Information needed on susceptibility to sedimentation.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Protection: None. No occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Comments: No known protected occurrences in the tropical western Atlantic.

Needs: Deeper reef communities need to be included in marine protected areas.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Habitat Structure
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!