The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Compagno, Leonard J. V. / Hamlett, William C., ed. 1999. Checklist of Living Elasmobranchs. Sharks, Skates, and Rays: The Biology of Elasmobranch Fishes. 471-498
  • Compagno, Leonard J. V. 1984. Sharks of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, no. 125, vol. 4, pt. 1
  • Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
  • in Smith, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 41, 683.


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