Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology: Nematocysts

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LocationImageCnidae TypeRange of
Lengths (m)
Range of
Widths (m)
nNState
Carlgren O. and Hedgpeth J. W., 1952
Acontia
N/A basitrichs  21 - 26.8  x  3 -   / Unfired
Actinopharynx
N/A basitrichs  21 - 26.8  x  3 -   / Unfired
Column
N/A basitrichs  12 - 14  x  2.2 -   / Unfired
Filaments
N/A basitrichs  11.3 - 12.7  x  1.5 -   / Unfired
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  19 - 24  x  4.2 - 5  / Unfired
Tentacles
N/A basitrichs  21 - 24  x  2.5 - 3  / Unfired
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Distribution

 Western Atlantic, from the northern coast of USA to the northern coast of Brazil, along the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico (Carlgren and Hedgpeth 1952, Zamponi et al. 1998). This is the first record for the coast of Mexico; found in Serpientes and Alacranes reefs.
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© Ricardo González-Muñoz, Nuno Simões, José Luis Tello-Musi, Estefanía Rodríguez

Source: ZooKeys

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 19 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 11 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 12 - 183
  Temperature range (°C): 19.670 - 26.480
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.475 - 5.397
  Salinity (PPS): 35.982 - 36.568
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.143 - 4.934
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.034 - 0.400
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.966 - 4.128

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 12 - 183

Temperature range (°C): 19.670 - 26.480

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.475 - 5.397

Salinity (PPS): 35.982 - 36.568

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.143 - 4.934

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.034 - 0.400

Silicate (umol/l): 0.966 - 4.128
 
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
  Temperature range (°C): 27.199 - 27.199
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.161 - 0.161
  Salinity (PPS): 35.610 - 35.610
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.665 - 4.665
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.121 - 0.121
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.528 - 1.528
 
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littoral
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 19 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 11 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 12 - 183
  Temperature range (°C): 19.670 - 26.480
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.475 - 5.397
  Salinity (PPS): 35.982 - 36.568
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.143 - 4.934
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.034 - 0.400
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.966 - 4.128

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 12 - 183

Temperature range (°C): 19.670 - 26.480

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.475 - 5.397

Salinity (PPS): 35.982 - 36.568

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.143 - 4.934

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.034 - 0.400

Silicate (umol/l): 0.966 - 4.128
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
  Temperature range (°C): 27.199 - 27.199
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.161 - 0.161
  Salinity (PPS): 35.610 - 35.610
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.665 - 4.665
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.121 - 0.121
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.528 - 1.528
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Biological Associations

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Algal symbionts
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Wikipedia

Calliactis tricolor

Calliactis tricolor, the tricolor anemone or hitchhiking anemone, is a species of sea anemone in the family Hormathiidae. It occurs in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. It can be found attached to rocks but is often attached to a living crab or mollusc or an empty shell occupied by a hermit crab.

Contents

Description

Calliactis tricolor is conical in shape with a smooth outer surface and a wide base. The height of the column varies from 2.5 to 7.5 centimetres (0.98 to 3.0 in). The colour is some shade of dull red, brown, olive or purple with cream stripes and there is a band of dark coloured spots near the base. The oral disc has a fringe of about 200 short white, orange or pink tentacles. The mouth is in the centre surrounded by bands of yellow, red and pinkish-purple colour.[2] When threatened by a predator, the anemone can release orange or white threads armed with stinging cnidocytes.[3]

Distribution

Calliactis tricolor is found in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern coast of Florida.[1][2]

Reproduction

Calliactis tricolor can reproduce asexually by longitudinal fission. Prior to that observation, its method of reproduction was unknown, but the finding of a number of very small specimens in one location indicates that sexual reproduction may also sometimes take place.[4]

Ecology

Calliactis tricolor may adhere to a rock but is usually found attached to the hard surface of a living animal. This can be the carapace of a crab,[5] a hermit crab occupying an empty gastropod shell, a clam [3] or other living mollusc such as the tulip shell (Fasciolaria tulipa) or the Caribbean crown conch (Melongena melongena).[6] This is a symbiotic relationship; the anemone benefits from greater access to food as its host moves around, and the host benefits from the protection from predators provided by the anemone's stinging cells.[3]

The shell occupied by the thinstripe hermit crab (Clibanarius vittatus) often carries a tricolor anemone. This is usually quite small but may be several centimetres in diameter. The crab actively collects the anemone from a base on a rock and places it on its shell. It later transfers it to a new shell when it has outgrown the present shell and needs to move into larger quarters.[2]

Calliactis tricolor is often found attached to a gastropod shell occupied by another hermit crab, Dardanus venosus. On finding an anemone, or after moving into a new shell, this hermit crab taps the edge of the base of the anemone several times with its claw. This causes it to relax and the crab can then lift it off the surface to which it was attached and place it onto its new home. The anemone clings there with its tentacles until its base is firmly settled in place.[5] In a trial, Dardanus venosus showed a preference for large anemones over small ones. It placed a large one on the top of its shell. When offered small ones, it ate some of them, and placed others close to the opening of its shell.[7]

References

  1. ^ a b c Fautin, Daphne (2010). "Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-04-01. 
  2. ^ a b c Clibanarius vittatus: Thinstripe hermit crab Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
  3. ^ a b c Marine Species: Calliactis tricolor Skaphandrus. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
  4. ^ Brooks, W. R.; Mariscal, R. N. (1985). "Asexual reproduction by the symbiotic sea anemone Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur)". Bulletin of Marine Science 36 (3): 432–435. 
  5. ^ a b Cutress, C. E.; Ross, D. M. (1969). "The sea anemone Calliactis tricolor and its association with the Hermit crab Dardanus venosus". Journal of Zoology 158 (2): 225–241. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1969.tb02143.x. 
  6. ^ Biological associations for Calliactis tricolor Hexacorallians of the World. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
  7. ^ Brooks, W. R. (1991). "The effect of anemone size and hermit crab behaviour on the distribution of Calliactis tricolor (Le Sueur) on the snail shells". Symbiosis 10 (1-3): 123–134. 
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