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Overview

Brief Summary

Dahlia anemones are large sea anemones, having as many as 10 to 160 tentacles. This anemone is easy to recognize when scuba diving. It has bands that run from the mouth to up and around the tentacles. Sometimes, there are even bands on the tentacles. The mouth of the dahlia anemone is found in the middle of all the tentacles, surrounded by very thick lips. The dahlia anemone is also known by the name northern red anemone.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

 A large anemone (base up to 15 cm diameter) with up to 160 short (up to 2 cm), stout tentacles arranged in multiples of ten. Individuals from offshore tend to be larger. The coloration is very variable, ranging through white, yellow, orange, red, blue, grey, purple and brown being either plain or more commonly in some combination. Perhaps most commonly with a red column blotched with green/grey and a prominent pattern of red lines amongst the tentacle bases. The tentacles are usually banded but may be plain. There are numerous grey warts on the column to which gravel and shell fragments stick. When the tentacles are fully retracted, the body of the anemones may be almost obscured by these adherent particles.The taxonomy and relationships of this sea anemone are in some confusion with anemones of very similar appearance and apparently reproductive biology to Urticina felina occurring on the north-west (Pacific) coast of north America. An attempt is made below to establish relationships important for using literature to support sensitivity and recoverability assessments elsewhere in this review. Stephenson (1935) identifies "Tealia (=Urticina) crassicornis" of Müller as a variety (crassicornis) of Tealia (=Urticina) felina (L.) but not the variety coriacea which is the "Tealia crassicornis" of Gosse (1860). However, Stephenson notes that, in his "var. crassicornis", the embryos develop up to a late stage in the coelenteron of the parent and later describes it as "viviparity". Since Appelöff (1900) cited in Chia & Spaulding (1972) reported that, in Europe, Tealia (=Urticina) crassicornis releases it's gametes freely into the sea (i.e. is not viviparous) and that the species they studied in the northwest USA similarly produced ova and sperm, it seems likely that their "Tealia crassicornis" has closer affinities to the British "Urticina felina" than to the species that occurs further north of the British Isles and is called "Tealia crassicornis (Müller)".
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Description

Tentacles short and stout, arranged in multiples of 10, those of the first (inner) cycle usually distinguished by the pattern on the disc, around their bases. Column divided into stout scapus and a narrow capitulum, with a prominent parapet and fosse. Scapus with numerous hollow warts which usually have gravel or other debris stuck to them. Colours very variable, plain or variegated, usually with a pattern on the disc. Size up to 200mm across tentacles, diameter of base to 120mm. This species may occur in almost any colour, or combination of colours, eg. red and green column, blue-grey disc and tentacles patterned with red, etc. When closed the gravel coating of this anemone may be all that can be seen. Sublittoral specimens may not have gravel stuck to their columns. Other anemones which coat themselves with gravel are: Anthopleura thallia, which is small, with relatively long tentacles which are arranged irregularly, colour very different from Urticina felina; Cereus pedunculatus and Sagartia troglodytes which have acontia and slender tentacles arranged in multiples of 6.
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Distribution

circumarctic boreal to Cape Cod
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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circum-boreal to arctic
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Geographic Range

Alaska-California

Biogeographic Regions: pacific ocean (Native )

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Common on all coasts of Britain and northwest Europe (absent in the Mediterranean), possibly circumpolar but may have been confused with other species.
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Ecology

Habitat

infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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low intertidal-shallow sublittoral rocky coast

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 90 - 90
 
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Depth range based on 44 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 20 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 366
  Temperature range (°C): 0.606 - 12.466
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.541 - 17.262
  Salinity (PPS): 27.473 - 35.267
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.910 - 7.823
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.091 - 1.218
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.193 - 15.790

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 366

Temperature range (°C): 0.606 - 12.466

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.541 - 17.262

Salinity (PPS): 27.473 - 35.267

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.910 - 7.823

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.091 - 1.218

Silicate (umol/l): 2.193 - 15.790
 
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
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 Typically found on the lower shore and subtidally, particularly on shores with strong wave action or subtidal areas with strong tidal streams. Small individuals may be found as high as the mid-tide line. Attaches very firmly to rocks and boulders, typically in crevices and gullies, sometimes forming dense carpets. Occurs in estuaries where hard substrata are present.
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On rocks, shells, etc. Typically a species of the lower shore and the shallow sublittoral but also from deeper water. Often forms large beds in the Laminaria zone on exposed, open coasts.
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

This species is carnivorous, using nematocysts to paralize prey. They feed on relatively large organisms.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Generally, anthozoans are primarly carnivorous which prey on sea urchins, gastropods, bivalves, or crustaceans that crawl or swim into their grasp.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

dioecious and oviparous.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Urticina felina

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

GGAAKAGGATCCGGTATGATAGGCACAGCTTTAAGTATGTTAATAAGATTGGAATTATCTGCCCCTGGTACTATGTTGGGGGAT---GACCATCTTTATAATGTCATAGTGACGGCACACGCCTTTATTATGATTTTCTTCCTAGTAATGCCAGTAATGATAGGAGGGTTTGGTAATTGGTTGGTACCACTATACATTGGTGCCCCCGATATGGCCTTCCCACGACTAAACAATATTAGTTTTTGGCTACTTCCTCCCGCGCTTATACTATTACTAGGTTCTGCCTTTGTTGAGCAAGGAGTGGGAACAGGGTGGACGGTATACCCTCCTCTATCCGGCATTCAAACGCACTCGGGAGGGGCGGTCGACATGGCCATCTTTAGCCTTCATTTAGCGGGTGCGTCTTCTATATTAGGGGCAATGAATTTTATAACAACCATATTTAATATGAGAGCACCGGGATTAACGATGGATAGACTCCCGCTATTTGTGTGGTCCATTTTAATTACTGCCTTTWTATTATTACTCTCCCTACCAGTCTTAGCAGGTGGAATAACCATGCTTTTAACAGATAGGAATTTTAATACAACTTTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGAGGTGGAGATCCCATCTTATTCCAA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Urticina felina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Northern red anemone

The northern red anemone or dahlia anemone (Urticina felina) is a marine invertebrate found in the north Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Synonyms include Tealia crassicornis (Müller, 1776), Tealia felina (Linnaeus, 1761), and Urticina crassicornis (Müller, 1776). The colour is variable. The sea anemone lives attached to rock on the seabed from the lower tidal limit down to a depth of 100 m and also attached to other organisms. It eats small fish and crustaceans, immobilizing its prey by firing groups of stinging cells (cnidae) into them.

Description[edit]

The base is up to 120 mm across and firmly adherent to the rock. Deep sea specimens are usually larger than inshore ones. The column is usually shorter than its diameter and its surface is covered in verrucae. There is a parapet at the top where the verrucae tend to be organised into rows. The verrucae usually have bits of gravel and debris attached to them and the contracted anemone has the appearance of a rounded hummock of gravel. The disc is not broader than the parapet and has up to 160 short tentacles arranged in multiples of ten. The colour is very variable; some individuals have a red column with green blotches, grey verrucae and greyish banded tentacles; others have a red column and disc with grey verrucae and white tentacles. The tentacles are often banded and in many individuals there are thin red lines on the disc visible between the tentacles.[2]

Distribution[edit]

U. felina is found in the Arctic Ocean, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the northern Atlantic Ocean as far south as the Bay of Biscay and the Gulf of Maine.[1]

Habitat[edit]

U. felina is found on rocks and boulders from the lower shore down to depths of 100 metres. It occurs in rock pools, in crevices and gullies, among the holdfasts of Laminaria spp., in caves and partly buried in gravel.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Urticina felina (Linnaeus, 1761) World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
  2. ^ a b Urticina felina Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
  • Wildlife Fact File, 1996, Card #15
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