The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,.. 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115
  • Haeckel, E. (1887). System der Siphonophoren, auf phylogenetischer Grundlage entworfen (a separate edition of Haeckel 1888a System der Siphonophoren, Jena Z. naturw. 22:1-46, published in December 1887)
  • Hoover, M. (2008). Portuguese Man -of-war (Physalia physalis). Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda. 2010,
  • Mapstone, G.; Schuchert, P. (2015). Cystonectae. In: Schuchert, P. (2015) World Hydrozoa database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • [Anonymous] (2010). Portuguese Man o' War. Wikipedia. 2010,
  • [Anonymous] (2010). Portuguese Man-of-war Physalia physalis. National Geographic. 2010,


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