Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 1483 specimens in 9 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 848 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 4050
  Temperature range (°C): 2.233 - 28.199
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.164 - 31.717
  Salinity (PPS): 32.419 - 36.580
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.346 - 6.470
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.038 - 1.926
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.380 - 27.833

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 4050

Temperature range (°C): 2.233 - 28.199

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.164 - 31.717

Salinity (PPS): 32.419 - 36.580

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.346 - 6.470

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.038 - 1.926

Silicate (umol/l): 0.380 - 27.833
 
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Skin reduces drag: shark
 

The skin of sharks reduces drag by having a scales with longitudinal grooves.

   
  While a shark’s coarse shape is famously hydrodynamic, shark skin is anything but smooth. The very small individual scales of shark skin, called dermal denticles ("little skin teeth"), are ribbed with longitudinal grooves which result in water moving more efficiently over their surface than it would were shark scales completely featureless. Over smooth surfaces, fast-moving water begins to break up into turbulent vortices, or eddies, in part because the water flowing at the surface of an object moves slower than water flowing further away from the object. This difference in water speed causes the faster water to get "tripped up" by the adjacent layer of slower water flowing around an object, just as upstream swirls form along riverbanks. The grooves in a shark’s scales simultaneously reduce eddy formation in a surprising number of ways: (1) the grooves reinforce the direction of flow by channeling it, (2) they speed up the slower water at the shark’s surface (as the same volume of water going through a narrower channel increases in speed), reducing the difference in speed of this surface flow and the water just beyond the shark’s surface, (3) conversely, they pull faster water towards the shark’s surface so that it mixes with the slower water, reducing this speed differential, and finally, (4) they divide up the sheet of water flowing over the shark’s surface so that any turbulence created results in smaller, rather than larger, vortices. (Courtesy of The Biomimicry Institute)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:599
Specimens with Sequences:500
Specimens with Barcodes:390
Species:12
Species With Barcodes:11
Public Records:270
Public Species:5
Public BINs:9
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Sphyrna

Sphyrna (from the Greek word σφυρί "hammer") is a genus of hammerhead sharks with a cosmopolitan distribution in the world's oceans. Members of Sphyrna have a tendency to inhabit coastal waters along the intertidal zone rather than the open ocean, as their prey items such as invertebrates, fish, rays, small crustaceans and other benthic organisms hide in the sands and sediment along these zones. Members of Sphyrna are also known by a large number of synonyms such as Zygaena, Cestracion, and Sphyrichthys. The earliest species described of this genus was Sphyrna zygaena by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, while the newest member Sphyrna gilberti was discovered and described in 2013.

Species[edit]

There are currently nine recognized species in this genus:[1][2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Sphyrna in FishBase. June 2013 version.
  2. ^ a b Quattro, J.M., Driggers, W.B. III, Grady, J.M., Ulrich, G.F. & Roberts, M.A. (2013): Sphyrna gilberti sp. nov., a new hammerhead shark (Carcharhiniformes, Sphyrnidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Zootaxa, 3702 (2): 159–178.
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