The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Collette, Bruce B., Jan R. McDowell, and John E. Graves. 2006. Phylogeny of recent billfishes (Xiphioidei). Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 79, no. 3. 455-468
- H. L. Fierstine. 2001. Analysis and new records of billfish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Istiophoridae) from the Yorktown Formation, Early Pliocene of eastern North Carolina at Lee Creek Mine. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 90:21-69
- Holder, Charles F. 1910. Sport Fishing in California and Florida. Washington, DC : Government Printing Office. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, vol. 28, 1908, Part 1; Plate VI-11
- Nakamura, Izumi. 1985. Billfishes of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Marlins, Sailfishes, Spearfishes and Swordfishes Known to Date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, no. 125, vol. 5. iv + 65
- Nakamura, Izumi. 1985. Billfishes of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of marlins, sailfishes, spearfishes and swordfishes known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis (125), vol. 5
- Shiino, Sueo M. 1976. List of Common Names of Fishes of the World, Those Prevailing among English-speaking Nations. Science Report of Shima Marineland, no. 4. 262