Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

General: Bur-reed family (Sparaniaceae).

American bur-reed

Sparganium americanum (SPAM)

branched bur-reed

Sparganium androcladum (SPAN)

narrowleaf bur-reed

Sparganium angustifolium (SPAN2)

simplestem bur-reed

Sparganium erectum (SPER)

broadfruit bur-reed

Sparganium eurycarpum (SPEU)

floating bur-reed

Sparganium fluctuans (SPFL)

clustered bur-reed

Sparganium glomeratum (SPGL)

northern bur-reed

Sparganium hyperboreum (SPHY)

small bur-reed

Sparganium natans (SPNA)

These bur-reed species are native, herbaceous marsh or pond plants with rootstocks. The leaves are alternate, stiff and erect or limp and floating, linear, and internally septate (The Great Plains Flora Association 1986). The individual flowers are small and occur in separate male (staminate) or female (pistillate) globular clusters on the same plant. (Steyermark 1963).

Distribution: A genus of twenty or more Sparanium species is widely distributed in temperate and colder latitudes of the eastern and western hemispheres, and in eastern North America (Braun 1967). For current distribution, please consult the Plant profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Distribution

Range Description

Sparganium natans is a Euro-Siberian species. Its occurs throughout most of Europe, western Asia, Japan and North America.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Circumboreal, south in North America to Oregon, New Mexico, Indiana, and Pennsylvania.

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St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Calif., Colo., Conn., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.H., N.Y., Oreg., Pa., R.I., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo.; circumboreal (not in Greenland).
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Adaptation

This species grows best on wet ground in rich soil. It prefers full sun but can tolerate some shade. Sparanium species is mostly found in muddy or shallow water of swamps and ponds. For current distribution, please consult the Plant profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants slender, grasslike, limp, to 0.6 m; leaves and inflorescences floating or, when stranded, more or less erect. Leaves limp in water, unkeeled, flat, 0.04--0.6 m  2--6(--10) mm; leaves of stranded plants shorter, firmer. Inflorescences: rachis unbranched, flexuous; bracts ascending, basally inflated; pistillate heads 1--3, axillary, not contiguous, sessile or most proximal short-peduncled (often long-peduncled in Alaska and nw Canada), 0.5--1.2 cm diam. in fruit; staminate head 1 or apparently so, terminal, not contiguous with distalmost pistillate head. Flowers: tepals without subapical dark spot, erose; stigmas 1, lance-ovate. Fruits dark greenish or brownish, subsessile, body ellipsoid to obovoid, not faceted, barely or not constricted at equator, 2--4  1--1.5 mm, tapering to beak; beak curved, 0.5--1.5 mm; tepals attached at base, reaching about to equator. Seeds 1. 2n = 30.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Sparganium minimum (Hartman) Fries
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
S. natans typically grows in mesotrophic to oligotrophic water which may be slightly acid (Cook and Nicholls 1986) to highly calcareous (Preston et al. 2002) over base-rich substrates (Cook and Nicholls 1986) in bays and inlets of lakes, pools, ditches and peat-diggings, less frequently in small streams. It will occur in large sedge (magnocaricion) habitats with species such as Carex elata and C. paniculata.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Cool, quiet, slightly acid to somewhat basic waters of bays, pools, ditches, and peat bogs, usually in shallow water but sometimes to 60 cm depth, where less floriferous, abundant in its northern range, less so southward; 0--3500m.
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Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation by Seed: Sparanium seeds should be sown as soon as they are ripe in the greenhouse. This species should be placed in pots standing in two to three centimeters of water. Place the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle

and gradually increase the depth of water with plant growth. Plant Sparanium sp to their permanent positions in the summer.

Large divisions can be planted directly into their permanent positions. While allowing smaller potted divisions to grow in a cold frame until they are well established and ready for summer out-planting to their permanent location..

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Associations

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Plateumaris discolor feeds on pollen? of Sparganium natans
Remarks: season: (3-)6(-12)

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering summer--fall (Jun--Sep southwestward, Jul--Aug northward).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sparganium minimum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sparganium minimum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Sparganium natans

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sparganium natans

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Lansdown, R.V.

Reviewer/s
Smith, K.

Contributor/s
Rhazi, M., Grillas, P., Rhazi, L. & Flanagan, D.

Justification

In spite of local declines and losses, this species is classed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the Plants Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Population

Population
S. natans is apparently widespread in Poland (Schnittler and Günther 1999). A significant decline in the south and lowland areas of the UK appears to be continuing, although it is listed as Least Concern by Cheffing and Farrell (2005). It is included at some level of threat in ten countries and apparently extinct in Luxembourg. In Hungary, 14 of 15 former populations have been lost, but two new populations have been found in the last ten years (G. Király pers. comm. 2010). Therefore, whilst there appear to be no empirical data, it must be assumed that this species is in decline through the central European part of its range.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The decline in the UK is attributed to loss of wetland habitats over much of the area from which this species has gone combined with continuing eutrophication; it is likely that these two causes operate throughout the range of the species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
S. natans is listed as:
  • Extinct in Luxembourg (Schnittler and Gunther 1999),
  • Critically Endangered in Serbia (Stevanovič 1999) and in Czech Republic (Procházka 2001),
  • Endangered in Germany, Slovakia, Austria (Schnittler and Gunther 1999) and former Yugoslavia (Stevanovič 1999) and
  • Vulnerable in Spain (Moreno 2008), Switzerland, Hungary (Schnittler and Gunther 1999) and Turkey.
Whilst local action is appropriate and there is a need to monitor global populations, overall, the species must be considered secure and not in need of conservation action.
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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Seeds of most aquatic plants should be sown as soon as they are ripe. The seeds lose viability quickly if it is allowed to dry out. If immediate sowing is inconvenient, store seeds in moist peat, or substitute in a plastic bag and keep frost-free (Heuser 1997).

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Ethnobotanic..The Klamath Indians dug the tubers (possibly Sparganium angustifolium, S. erectum, and/or S. eurycarpum) produced in late autumn from the creeping rootstocks of some of the species of this genus, and use them as food (Steyermark 1963). An infusion of Sparanium erectum can be mixed with other plant leaves and used in the treatment of chills (Moerman 1998). A decoction of Sparganium stoloniferum root was used in the treatment of chest pains and abdominal pain (Yeung 1985).

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Wikipedia

Sparganium natans

Sparganium natans is a species of bur-reed known by the common name small bur-reed. It is a water plant native to high elevation lakes and marshes of Canada and the northern United States. It is usually found submersed in shallow, calm water. This bur-reed has thin, flexible, grasslike leaves which float in the water. Plants that spend more time out of water at the waterline are tougher and have shorter leaves. The plant bears two inflorescences, the staminate type being a rounded white filamentous ball and the pistillate type a sphere of thick, green, pointy peduncles. The fruits are small green or brown achenes.

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Notes

Comments

This species has long been known as Sparganium minimum, but although the correct name is S. natans (C. D. K. Cook 1985). 

 The leaves of Sparganium natans are thinner and more translucent than those of the similar S. hyperboreum, and they lack the yellowish cast of that species. Its distalmost pistillate head is not contiguous with the staminate head, as is sometimes the case in S. hyperboreum, and its beaked fruit also distinguishes it from that species. See the discussion under S. hyperboreum for a description of S. hyperboreumS. natans.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Spelled 'nutans' in Kartesz 1994 checklist; correction to 'natans' made in Sept. 1998 review draft.

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