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BiologyBranched bur-reed is a perennial species that flowers from June to August (1). The leaves arise from rhizomes and die back at the end of each year (4). Although insects do visit the flowers, they are only attracted to male flowers, and so pollination by insects is not important. Pollination is mainly by wind, although self-fertilisation may occur. The fruits can float for a number of months, which aids in their dispersal. They germinate under water, but seedling survival is poor. The plants can also spread (by vegetative reproduction) from the rhizomes (6).