Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

General: Bur-reed family (Sparaniaceae).

American bur-reed

Sparganium americanum (SPAM)

branched bur-reed

Sparganium androcladum (SPAN)

narrowleaf bur-reed

Sparganium angustifolium (SPAN2)

simplestem bur-reed

Sparganium erectum (SPER)

broadfruit bur-reed

Sparganium eurycarpum (SPEU)

floating bur-reed

Sparganium fluctuans (SPFL)

clustered bur-reed

Sparganium glomeratum (SPGL)

northern bur-reed

Sparganium hyperboreum (SPHY)

small bur-reed

Sparganium natans (SPNA)

These bur-reed species are native, herbaceous marsh or pond plants with rootstocks. The leaves are alternate, stiff and erect or limp and floating, linear, and internally septate (The Great Plains Flora Association 1986). The individual flowers are small and occur in separate male (staminate) or female (pistillate) globular clusters on the same plant. (Steyermark 1963).

Distribution: A genus of twenty or more Sparanium species is widely distributed in temperate and colder latitudes of the eastern and western hemispheres, and in eastern North America (Braun 1967). For current distribution, please consult the Plant profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Range Description

The species occurs mainly in Europe, with scattered records east through the Caucasus and Russia to Kamchatka (including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia), China (Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Xinjiang, and possibly Henan, Hebei and Shaanxi) and Japan, it is also found in northern North America. In Europe, it is common in the west and centre, north into Scandinavia but is less frequent in the Mediterranean, it occurs throughout European Russia (Cook and Nicholls 1986, Castroviejo et al. 2008, eFloras 2011). There is an outlying record from Myanmar (eFloras 2011)

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Greenland; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Conn., Idaho, Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.Mex., N.Y., Oreg., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo.; circumboreal.
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Adaptation

This species grows best on wet ground in rich soil. It prefers full sun but can tolerate some shade. Sparanium species is mostly found in muddy or shallow water of swamps and ponds. For current distribution, please consult the Plant profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants slender, to more than 2 m long; leaves and inflorescences usually floating. Leaves limp, unkeeled, flat to plano-convex, 0.2--0.8(--2.5) m  2--5(--10) mm. Inflorescences: rachis unbranched, flexuous, its fertile part usually erect at water surface; bracts ascending, lower bracts inflated near base; pistillate heads 2--5, at least some supra-axillary, not contiguous, sessile or most proximal peduncled (often prominently so in deeper water), 1--3 cm diam. in fruit; staminate heads (1--)2--4, contiguous and appearing as one elongate head, not contiguous with distalmost pistillate head. Flowers: tepals without subapical dark spot, erose-tipped, stigma 1, lance-ovate. Fruits reddish to brownish, dull, short-stipitate, ellipsoid to fusiform, not faceted, body constricted at equator, 3--7 mm, tapering to beak; beak straight, 1.5--2 mm; tepals attached at base, reaching about to equator. Seeds 1. 2n = 30.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Sparganium angustifolium var. multipedunculatum (Morong) Brayshaw; S. emersum Rehmann var. multipedunculatum (Morong) Reveal; S. multipedunculatum (Morong) Rydberg, S. simplex Hudson var. multipedunculatum Morong
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species typically occurs in the margins of lakes, swamps, and in the slower reaches or backwaters of large lowland rivers, it will also occasionally occur in canals and smaller ponds. It is most frequently found in mesotrophic to eutrophic systems in deep silt and usually in fairly shallow water. Cook and Nicholls (1986) consider that it is a poor competitor and this is why it is not more often dominant.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Acid, oligotrophic waters of lakes, ponds, ditches, and streams, usually in shallow waters but to 2.5 m deep; 0--4000m.
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Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation by Seed: Sparanium seeds should be sown as soon as they are ripe in the greenhouse. This species should be placed in pots standing in two to three centimeters of water. Place the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle

and gradually increase the depth of water with plant growth. Plant Sparanium sp to their permanent positions in the summer.

Large divisions can be planted directly into their permanent positions. While allowing smaller potted divisions to grow in a cold frame until they are well established and ready for summer out-planting to their permanent location..

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Associations

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Donacia sparganii feeds on root of Sparganium angustifolium

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering summer--fall (Jun--Oct southwestward, Jul--Aug northward).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sparganium angustifolium

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sparganium angustifolium

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Allen, D.

Reviewer/s
Lansdown, R.V. & Smith, K.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species is assessed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.
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Status

Please consult the Plants Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Population

Population
The species is widespread and abundant with stable populations throughout most of its European range, and probably globally.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

There are no known past, ongoing, or future threats to the survival of this species.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

There are no conservation measures in place or needed.

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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Seeds of most aquatic plants should be sown as soon as they are ripe. The seeds lose viability quickly if it is allowed to dry out. If immediate sowing is inconvenient, store seeds in moist peat, or substitute in a plastic bag and keep frost-free (Heuser 1997).

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Ethnobotanic..The Klamath Indians dug the tubers (possibly Sparganium angustifolium, S. erectum, and/or S. eurycarpum) produced in late autumn from the creeping rootstocks of some of the species of this genus, and use them as food (Steyermark 1963). An infusion of Sparanium erectum can be mixed with other plant leaves and used in the treatment of chills (Moerman 1998). A decoction of Sparganium stoloniferum root was used in the treatment of chest pains and abdominal pain (Yeung 1985).

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Wikipedia

Sparganium angustifolium

Sparganium angustifolium is a species of flowering plant in the cat-tail family known by the common name narrowleaf bur-reed. It has a circumboreal distribution, occurring throughout the northern latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. It is an aquatic plant, growing in water up to 2.5 meters deep. Its habitat includes acidic, low-nutrient freshwater bodies such as ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams, and ditches. It can become abundant, practically covering the surface of the water. It is a perennial herb producing a floating stem with long, narrow, flattened leaves which can be quite long, sometimes reaching over two meters. It is monoecious, individual plants bearing both male and female inflorescences. These are spherical, the male inflorescence a ball of stamens and the female inflorescence a ball of developing fruits.

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Notes

Comments

Sparganium angustifolium is sometimes abundant, its leaves then covering the surface. It is a relatively invariable species that forms fertile hybrids with S. emersum (C. D. K. Cook and M. S. Nicholls 1986), from which it is distinguished by its contiguous staminate heads and flat to plano-convex leaves. See the discussion under S. emersum.
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