Overview

Comprehensive Description

Apteronotus sp. ZBK -

Brazil - MZUSP 23095, 24 ex. ; MZUSP 24463, 11 ex. ; Venezuela - CU 72164, 2 ex. ; CU 78520, 1 ex. ; CU 78556, 3 ex. ; CU 78564, 5 ex. ; CU 78616, 1 ex. ; CU 78631, 1 ex. ; CU 78679, 2 ex. ; CU 78722, 2 ex. ; CU 78778, 2 ex. ; CU 82349, 11 ex. ; CU 82441, 2 ex. ; CU 82442, 1 ex. ; CU 82443, 10 ex. ; CU 82446, 2 ex. ; Colombia - UF 23847, 1 ex. ; UF 23848, 1 ex. ; UF 23849, 1 ex. ; UF 23850, 1 ex. ; UF 23851, 1 ex. ; UF 23852, 1 ex. ; UF 23854, 2 ex. ; UF 33218, 1 ex. ; UF 33310, 1 ex.

  • Carlos David de Santana (2003): Apteronotus caudimaculosus n. sp. (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae), a sexually dimorphic black ghost knifefish from the Pantanal, Western Brazil, with a note on the monophyly of the A. albifrons species complex. Zootaxa 252, 1-11: 10-10, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F8968B32-56CC-4502-B6E3-896FDF06684F
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[[ Apteronotus ZBK ]]

A dichotomous key to species of Apteronotus ZBK (sensu stricto)

(Specimens over 100.0 mm TL)

1 Body coloration even or finely spotted ......................................................................... 3

- Body coloration blotchy or marbled .............................................................................. 2

2 Mouth rictus passing imaginary vertical line at posterior naris; clear band on dorsal region of body; specimens less than 140.0 mm TL with two clear bands on caudal fin peduncle; those over 140.0 mm TL with one clear band encircling base of caudal fin. Distribution: Maracaibo basin, Venezuela .............................. A. cuchillo Schultz, 1949 ZBK

- Mouth rictus not passing imaginary vertical line with posterior naris; dorsal region evenly colored; clear band encircling base of caudal fin in large specimens. Distribution: Magdalena basin, Colombia ............................... A. magdalenensis (Milles, 1945)

3 Presence of one clear band encircling caudal fin peduncle throughout development ............ 5

- Presence of two clear bands encircling caudal fin peduncle throughout development... ..................................................................................... 4 ( A. albifrons species complex)

4 Absence of spots on first clear band on caudal peduncle; long tail 22.3-23.1% of LEA. Distribution: Surinam ....................................................... A. albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766)

- Irregular spots on first clear band on caudal peduncle throughout development; short tail 10.4-19.2% of LEA. Distribution: Pantanal, central Brazil ...................................... ................................................................................................. A. caudimaculosus ZBK n. sp.

5 Presence of clear band on dorsal region of body .......................................................... 6

- Absence of clear band on dorsal region of body ........................................................... 9

6 Seven transitional vertebrae. Distribution: Maracaibo basin, Venezuela ........................ ........................................................................................... A. cuchillejo (Schultz, 1949)

- Three to four transitional vertebrae ............................................................................... 7

7 Presence of clear band on chin ...................................................................................... 8

- Absence of clear band on chin. Distribution: Magdalena basin, Colombia .................... ........................................................................ A. mariae (Eigenmann and Fisher, 1914)

8 Two rows of teeth on dentary; maxilla without conspicuous ascending process in dorsoposterior region; twelve scales above lateral line at mid-body. Distribution: Basins of the Guyana shield ............................. A. leptorhynchus species complex (Ellis, 1912)

- Two rows of teeth on anterior part of dentary and one row on posterior portion; maxilla with conspicuous ascending process in dorsoposterior region; nine to ten scales above lateral line at mid-body. Distribution: Magdalena basin, Northern basins of Colombia and Panama ...... A. rostratus species complex (Meek and Hildebrand, 1913)

9 Mouth rictus reaching an imaginary vertical line with eyes ....................................... 10

- Mouth rictus not reaching an imaginary vertical line with eyes ................................. 11

10 Five to eight scales above lateral line at mid-body. Distribution: Paraná and Paraguay River basins ........................................................................... A. ellisi ( Aramburu , 1957)

- More than nine scales above lateral line at mid-body. Distribution: Rio Jurubidá , Nuquí (Colombia) .............................................................. A. jurubidae (Fowler, 1944)

11 Mouth rictus passing an imaginary vertical line at posterior naris; dorsum covered by scales; 12 to 16 scales above lateral line at mid-body; two rows of teeth on dentary. Distribution: São Francisco, Paraná and Parnaíba river basins ....................................... ......................................................... A. brasiliensis species complex (Reinhardt, 1852)

- Mouth rictus not passing an imaginary vertical line at posterior naris; absence of scales on dorsal region of body; presence of enlarged fleshy lateral lobe on chin; eight scales above lateral line at mid-body; two to three rows of teeth on dentary. Distribution: Rio Paraná , Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil ................................... A. marauna (Triques, 1998)

  • Carlos David de Santana (2003): Apteronotus caudimaculosus n. sp. (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae), a sexually dimorphic black ghost knifefish from the Pantanal, Western Brazil, with a note on the monophyly of the A. albifrons species complex. Zootaxa 252, 1-11: 6-8, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F8968B32-56CC-4502-B6E3-896FDF06684F
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[[ Genus Apteronotus Lacepede ZBK ]]

Apteronotus Lacepede ZBK is the most diverse genus in Apteronotidae (Mago-Leccia, 1994; Albert & Campos-da-Paz, 1998; Campos-da-Paz, 1999; Albert, 2001; Albert, 2003; de Santana, 2003; de Santana et al., 2004). Albert (2003) lists 16 nominal species of Apteronotus ZBK . De Santana (2003) and de Santana et al. (2004) described two more species, bringing the total number of species to 18. In earlier papers, Albert & Campos-da-Paz (1998) and Albert (2001) divided Apteronotus ZBK into a putatively monophyletic Apteronotus ZBK “sensu stricto” clade differing from previous concepts of Apterontous ZBK (e.g., Mago-Leccia 1994), and several additional species of Apteronotus ZBK “sensu lato” whose phylogenetic relationships are unclear. This division was, however, not maintained in the catalog of alpha-taxonomy presented by Albert (2003) where both Apteronotus ZBK “sensu stricto” and “sensu lato” are combined. In this paper our references to Apteronotus ZBK forthwith refer only to Apteronotus ZBK “sensu stricto”.

Currently, eight endemic species of Apteronotus ZBK are known from the Trans-Andean region (de Santana, 2002; de Santana et al., 2004). This group is notorious for having the most varied phenotypes in the family Apteronotidae (Alves-Gomes, 1997; de Santana, 2002) and for having many cases of secondary sexual dimorphism in head shape (de Santana, 2002; de Santana, 2003; de Santana et al., 2004). They are known to inhabit both floodplain and terra firme streams and rivers, and to prey on small insects and fishes (Ellis, 1913; Crampton, 1998; Albert, 2003). As in most genera of Neotropical electric fishes, the alpha-taxonomy of Apteronotus ZBK is still poorly understood (Albert et al., 1999; Campos-daPaz, 1999; de Santana, 2002; 2003). However, intensive taxonomic work is ongoing on the genus (e.g., de Santana, 2002; de Santana, 2003; de Santana et al., 2004). Continuing the taxonomic study on the Colombia Trans-Andean Apteronotidae, a detailed re-examination was made of two poorly known nominal gymnotiform species Sternarchus mariae Eigenmann& Fisher ZBK and Sternarchus jurubidae Fowler ZBK .

Eigenmann & Fisher (1914) described S. mariae ZBK from the Rio Magdalena Basin at Giradort and Apulo, Colombia. S. jurubidae ZBK was later described by Fowler (1944) from the Rio Jurubidá at Nuquí , also in Colombia. Albert & Campos-da-Paz (1998) and Albert (2001) recently included these two species in Apteronotus ZBK . The species were included in the “ A. albifrons species-group .” Albert & Campos-da-Paz (1998) and Albert (2001) suggested that A. jurubidae and A. spurrellii (Regan) , not treated in the present work, could represent synonyms of A. mariae . However, de Santana (2002, 2003) presented a dichotomous key in which both A. mariae and A. jurubidae were distinguished from each other and from other members of Apteronotus ZBK , and Albert (2003) listed A. jurubidae as a valid species. In the present work we provide a redescription of A. mariae , and investigate the specific status of A. jurubidae .

  • Carlos David de Santana, Javier A. Maldonado-Ocampo (2004): Redescription of Apteronotus mariae (Eigenmann & Fisher, 1914) and the taxonomic status of Apteronotus jurubidae (Fowler, 1944) (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae). Zootaxa 632, 1-14: 1-2, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FC37F2CB-1F0D-45D6-9651-1B63DA174B60
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[[ Apteronotus ZBK ]]

Presently, fifteen species are included in the genus Apteronotus ZBK . They can be identified by the following features (Albert, 2001): (1) body surface deep brown or black with a white mid-dorsal stripe and white mental and caudal patches; (2) elongate posterior limb of the anguloarticular; (3) surface of cranial bones solid, not pitted; (4) behavior of inhabiting upland streams, small rivers and lagoons; (5) premaxilla gracile, scroll-shaped in adults, with two or fewer teeth.

  • Carlos David de Santana (2003): Apteronotus caudimaculosus n. sp. (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae), a sexually dimorphic black ghost knifefish from the Pantanal, Western Brazil, with a note on the monophyly of the A. albifrons species complex. Zootaxa 252, 1-11: 1-1, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F8968B32-56CC-4502-B6E3-896FDF06684F
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Apteronotus sp. ZBK :

Brazil - MZUSP 23095, 24 ex. ; MZUSP 24463, 11 ex. ; Venezuela - CU 72164, 2 ex. ; CU 78520, 1 ex. ; CU 78556, 3 ex. ; CU 78564, 5 ex. ; CU 78616, 1 ex. ; CU 78631, 1 ex. ; CU 78679, 2 ex. ; CU 78722, 2 ex. ; CU 78778, 2 ex. ; CU 82349, 11 ex. ; CU 82441, 2 ex. ; CU 82442, 1 ex. ; CU 82443, 10 ex. ; CU 82446, 2 ex. ; Colombia - UF 23847, 1 ex. ; UF 23848, 1 ex. ; UF 23849, 1 ex. ; UF 23850, 1 ex. ; UF 23851, 1 ex. ; UF 23852, 1 ex. ; UF 23854, 2 ex. ; UF 33218, 1 ex. ; UF 33310, 1 ex.

  • Carlos David de Santana, Javier A. Maldonado-Ocampo, William Severi, George Nilson Mendes (2004): Apteronotus eschmeyeri, a new species of ghost knifefish from the Magdalena Basin, Colombia (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae). Zootaxa 410, 1-11: 10-10, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F021A86A-3265-40FB-97B8-8EDC7937DEFC
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 17.7

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 17.7
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 45
Specimens with Sequences: 23
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species: 7
Species With Barcodes: 5
Public Records: 4
Public Species: 1
Public BINs: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sternarchus sp.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Apteronotus

Apteronotus is a genus of weakly electric knifefish in the family Apteronotidae, distinguished by the presence of a tiny caudal fin. This genus is restricted to South America.

Species[edit]

There are currently 27 recognized species in this genus: [1][2][3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Apteronotus in FishBase. April 2013 version.
  2. ^ a b de Santana, C.D. & Cox Fernandes, C. (2012): A New Species of Sexually Dimorphic Electric Knifefish from the Amazon Basin, Brazil (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae). Copeia, 2012 (2): 283-292.
  3. ^ a b c d e de Santana, C.D. & Vari, R.P. (2013): Brown ghost electric fishes of the Apteronotus leptorhynchus species-group (Ostariophysi, Gymnotiformes); monophyly, major clades, and revision. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 168 (3): 564–596.
  4. ^ Triques, M.L. (2011): Apteronotus acidops, new species of long snouted electric fish (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) from the upper rio Paraná basin in Brazil, with a key to the apteronotid species from the area. Vertebrate Zoology, 61 (3): 299–306.


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