Overview

Comprehensive Description

[[ Hydrolagus ZBK ]]

Hydrolagus ZBK is one of two genera found within the family Chimaeridae. Species in this family are typically characterized as having short fleshy snouts that are bluntly pointed at the tip, elongate bodies tapering to a whiplike tail with an elongate filament, and are uniform brown, gray, or black in color with the possibility of white spots or stripes (Didier, 2004). There is very little difference between Hydrolagus ZBK and Chimaera , the other genus within this family, other than the presence (in Chimaera ) or absence (in Hydrolagus ZBK ) of an anal fin. The anal fin is located anterior to the ventral caudal fin and is only separated from it by a small notch and can be very subtle, making it sometimes difficult to distinguish the two genera (Bigelow and Schroeder, 1953; Didier, 1995, 2004; pers. obs.).

Comprising 17 of the 24 known species within this family, species of Hydrolagus ZBK are found in every ocean, except the Arctic and Antarctic (Didier, 2004), with the greatest diversity known from the western Pacific. The only species of Hydrolagus ZBK known from eastern South Pacific is Hydrolagus macrophthalmus (de Buen, 1959) ZBK , a poorly known species described from two specimens collected from off Valpraiso, Chile. The holotype (Figure 1), which was thought to be lost due to a tsunami that partially destroyed the museum it was previously contained in, was rediscovered and it is now part of the collection at the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural in Santiago, Chile (MNHNC P. 7282). There have also been specimens of H. macrophthalmus ZBK collected from off Peru and these are used for comparisons in this study (Chirichigno, 1968; Didier, unpubl. data). Morphometrics and morphological features confirm that Hydrolagus alphussp. nov. is different from Hydrolagus macrophthalmus ZBK . This is the second new species of chimaeroid from the Galapagos Islands (Barnett et al., 2006) and adds a third species to the diversity of Hydrolagus ZBK in the eastern tropical Pacific.

  • Kimberly L. Quaranta, Dominique A. Didier, Douglas J. Long, David A. Ebert (2006): A new species of chimaeroid, Hydrolagus alphus sp. nov. (Chimaeriformes: Chimaeridae) from the Galapagos Islands. Zootaxa 1377, 33-45: 34-34, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E5D0DE3F-2256-4E32-9056-83CFFB919447
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[[ Hydrolagus ZBK ]]

Introduction

Chimaeroids are the extant members of the subclass Holocephali (living and fossil chimaeras or ratfishes) which, together with the Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates and rays), form the monophyletic class Chondrichthyes (Didier 1995; Grogan & Lund 2004; Maisey 1984, 1986; Schaeffer 1981). Their distribution is cosmopolitan with the exception of the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. At present there are 34 species described in the order Chimaeriformes (Compagno 2005), with as many as ten new species awaiting formal description, all within the family Chimaeridae (Didier, unpublished data). One additional species, Hydrolagus lusitanicus Moura et al. 2005 ZBK , was recently described but it remains unclear whether or not this is indeed a valid species (D.A. Didier, personal observation). The Chimaeridae are the largest family of the order, consisting of two genera, Chimaera and Hydrolagus ZBK . The Hydrolagus ZBK are more speciose and differentiated from Chimaera by the absence of a notch separating the anal fin from the ventral caudal fin.

Species richness of Hydrolagus ZBK is greatest in the western Pacific, with 11 known species. The eastern Pacific fauna consists of only two described species, Hydrolagus colliei (Lay & Bennett 1839) and H. macrophthalmus de Buen 1959 ZBK . The former is endemic to the eastern North Pacific (Allen & Smith 1988; Didier & Rosenberger 2002; Eschmeyer et al. 1983; Miller & Lea 1972), while the latter seems to be restricted to the eastern South Pacific. The only confirmed records of H. macrophthalmus ZBK are from off Chile (de Buen 1959), however, reports of this species from off Peru (Chirichigno 1968) may also be accurate (Quaranta et al. in review). The new species described in this study marks the first record of a chimaeroid from the Galápagos Islands (Grove & Lavenberg 1997).

  • Lewis A. K. Barnett, Dominique A. Didier, Douglas J. Long, David A. Ebert (2006): Hydrolagus mccoskeri sp. nov., a new species of chimaeroid fish from the Galápagos Islands (Holocephali: Chimaeriformes: Chimaeridae). Zootaxa 1328, 27-38: 27-28, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:682471C6-2C88-4399-B207-3716238191A6
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[[ Hydrolagus ZBK ]]

Key to the Eastern South Pacific species of Hydrolagus ZBK

1a. Light brown or tan coloration with numerous white markings on body.... H. mccoskeri

1b. Uniform dark brown coloration with few or no white markings on body ................... 2

2a. Body with no white markings on lateral side; snout tip pointed; slight raise in anterior portion of second dorsal fin with shallow notch medially; eyes 33.8-39.3% HDL; tail region from insertion of pelvic fins to origin of dorsal caudal fin extremely long and slender (always> 60 % BDL) ......................................................... H. macrophthalmus ZBK

2b. Body with one white spot on lateral side above pectoral fin or in abdominal region; snout tip blunt; anterior and posterior regions of second dorsal fin lobate with indented white middle region; eyes large (40.8-44.5% HDL); tail region from insertion of pelvic friends to origin of dorsal caudal fin short and stout (always <57 % BDL) ............ .......................................................................................................................... H. alphus

  • Kimberly L. Quaranta, Dominique A. Didier, Douglas J. Long, David A. Ebert (2006): A new species of chimaeroid, Hydrolagus alphus sp. nov. (Chimaeriformes: Chimaeridae) from the Galapagos Islands. Zootaxa 1377, 33-45: 42-43, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E5D0DE3F-2256-4E32-9056-83CFFB919447
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 15030 specimens in 19 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 10470 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3 - 25000
  Temperature range (°C): 1.970 - 17.687
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.334 - 43.393
  Salinity (PPS): 32.340 - 35.761
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.139 - 6.736
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.210 - 3.137
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.000 - 173.732

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3 - 25000

Temperature range (°C): 1.970 - 17.687

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.334 - 43.393

Salinity (PPS): 32.340 - 35.761

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.139 - 6.736

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.210 - 3.137

Silicate (umol/l): 0.000 - 173.732
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hydrolagus cf. trolli

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hydrolagus cf. lemures

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 207
Specimens with Sequences: 179
Specimens with Barcodes: 171
Species: 20
Species With Barcodes: 19
Public Records: 46
Public Species: 10
Public BINs: 9
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Hydrolagus

Hydrolagus is a genus of fish in the Chimaeridae family.

Species[edit]

The currently recognized species in this genus are:[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Hydrolagus in FishBase. June 2013 version.
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