The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Lalli, C. M. and R. W. Gilmer. 1989. Pelagic snails. The biology of holoplanktonic gastropod mollusks. Stanford Unive. Press, Stanford, pp. 1-259.
  • Richter, G. and R. R. Seapy. 1999. Heteropoda, pp. 621-647. In: D. Boltovskoy (ed.), South Atlantic Zooplankton. Leiden: Backhuys Publ.
  • Spoel, S. van der, L. Newman and K. W. Estep. 1997. Pelagic molluscs of the world. World Biodiversity Database, CD-ROM Series. Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification (ETI), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, UNESCO, Paris.
  • Tesch, J. J. 1949. Heteropoda. Dana Rep., 34: 1-54.
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526


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