Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Degraded deciduous forests. Native of South America.
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

Range Description

Endemic to Ecuador's southern Andes, where it is known from a single population recorded in 1944 in an undetermined locale of Loja. No specimens of this species are housed in Ecuadorean museums.
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"
Global Distribution

Native of South America

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Thiruvananthapuram

"
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Kerala: Thiruvananthapuram
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Shrubs to small trees, branchlets terete, pubescent. Leaves subopposite or opposite, subcoriaceous, 8-10 cm, broadly elliptic-oblong, pellucid dotted, entire, pubescent beneath; lateral nerves 8-10 pairs, looping; petiole 1-1.5 cm long. Flowers slightly fragrant. Calyx tube adnate to the ovary, imperfectly 5- lobed, green, pubescent without. Petals 5, caducous, white, spathulate, 1.5 x 1 cm. Stamens c. 200, white; filaments 1-1.2 cm long; anthers oblong, 0.1- 0.5 cm long, introrse, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary many- celled, ovules many in each locule; style 1.3 cm long, white, stigma capitate. Berry globose, 2-3 cm diameter, pubescent, yellow when ripe; seeds many, embedded in the creamy-yellow flesh."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Type Information

Isotype for Psidium ooideum var. longipedunculatum Rusby
Catalog Number: US 1157226
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. Bang
Year Collected: 1890
Locality: Yungas., Bolivia, South America
  • Isotype: Rusby, H. H. 1893. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club. 3 (3): 27.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A tree found in humid Andean vegetation to high Andean forest (2,000–3,000 m).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Habitat

Degraded deciduous forests
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: January-October
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Psidium guineense

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Bazante, G. & Pitman, N.

Reviewer/s
Valencia, R., Pitman, N., Léon-Yánez, S. & Jørgensen, P.M. (Ecuador Plants Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Myrcianthes irregularis is endemic to Ecuador's southern Andes, where it is known from a single subpopulation recorded in 1944 in an undetermined locale of Loja. Habitat destruction is the only known threat.
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Threats

Major Threats
Apart from habitat destruction, no specific threats are known.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Not known to occur with Ecuador's protected areas network, but may possibly occur in the Parque Nacional Podocarpus.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Bark: Bark is boiled, and the water drunk as an anti-diarrheal by the Guyana Patamona. Leaf: Leaves are boiled, and the water drunk as a treatment for coughing or as an anti-diarrheal, by the Guyana Patamona. Fruit: Juice of the young fruit is squeezed and used as an anti-dysenteric or for “bad-belly”, by the Guyana Patamona.

  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).

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Wikipedia

Psidium guineense

Psidium guineense is a species of guava.

Common names include Brazilian guava, Castilian guava,[1] sour guava,[2] Guinea guava (English language), goyavier du Brésil (French language),[3] brasiliaanse koejawel (Afrikaans), stachelbeerguave (German language), chobo, diondan (Bolivia), guayabillo de tierra fria (El Salvador),[2] araçá do campo, aracahy (Brazil), guayaba brava, sacha guayaba (Peru), allpa guayaba (Ecuador), guayaba agria (Venezuela, Mexico), guayaba acida, chamach, pichippul (Guatemala), cas extranjero (Costa Rica), and guayabita de sabana (Panama).[1]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

This plant is native to the Americas, where its natural range extends from Mexico to Argentina, and includes parts of the Caribbean. It has been widely introduced outside of this range, and it is cultivated in some places. It is naturalized in parts of India.[1]

The plant grows best on sunny sites with moist, fertile soils, but it is tolerant of a wide range of conditions and can grow in disturbed areas and in bad soils. It does not tolerate salinity or flooded substrates.[2] In Brazil it is most common in coastal areas.[4]

Description[edit]

This plant can be a shrub 1 to 3 meters tall or a tree reaching 7 meters. The bark and foliage are grayish. The leaves are up to 14 centimeters long by 8 wide. The stiff, oval-shaped blades sometimes have toothed edges. The undersides are very glandular and are coated in pale or reddish hairs. Flowers grow in the leaf axils, singly or in clusters of up to 3. The flower has a white corolla and many stamens.[1] It is fragrant.[3] The fruit is firm, rounded, and up to 2.5 centimeters wide. It has a yellow skin, a yellow outer pulp and whitish inner pulp containing many seeds.[1]

Fruit[edit]

The pulp of the fruit is said to have a tart, strawberry-like taste.[1] It has also been described as bitter.[3] Different varieties have different tastes, and some are sweet enough to eat as raw fruit.[2] They make good fruit preserves.[1]

This species has been crossed with its relative, the common guava. The resulting fruits are small, but numerous.[1]

Other uses[edit]

The wood of the plant is hard and sturdy and can be used as lumber and to make durable objects like tool handles. The bark has tannin and can be used in tanning.[1]

There are a few medicinal uses for the plant. Extracts of the bark and roots are used to treat diarrhea in Brazil. Extracts of the leaves are used to ease the common cold in Costa Rica.[1] Laboratory studies show that extracts have some activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, particularly when combined with antibiotics. Flavonoids identified in the plant include quercetin, avicularin, and guaijaverin.[4]

Ecology[edit]

The plant ia a host for the mistletoe Psittacanthus angustifolius.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Brazilian Guava (Psidium guineense Sw.) The Center for New Crops & Plant Products. Purdue University.
  2. ^ a b c d Lim, T. K. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 3, Fruits. Springer. 2012. pg. 728-29.
  3. ^ a b c Psidium guineense. USFS. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER).
  4. ^ a b Fernandes, T. G., et al. (2012). In vitro synergistic effect of Psidium guineense (Swartz) in combination with antimicrobial agents against methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The Scientific World Journal 158237.
  5. ^ Melgar, J. and M. Berrios. (2001). First report of Psittacanthus angustifolius on Psidium guineense and Pinus tecunumanii in Honduras. Plant Disease 85(10) 1120.1.
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Myrcianthes irregularis

Amomyrtella irregularis (formerly Myrcianthes irregularis) is a species of tree in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. It is endemic to Ecuador, where it grows in the humid forests of the southern Andes.[1] Its common name is mate-mate.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bazante, G. and N. Pitman. 2004. Myrcianthes irregularis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 19 September 2013.
  2. ^ Landrum, L. R. and V. Morocho. (2011). A new combination based on Myrcianthes irregularis (Myrtaceae) – a new genus for Ecuador. J Bot Res Inst Texas 5(1), 105-07.
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Notes

Common Names

Guyana Patamona: peg-kok-yik, qua-pa-yik, ma-ra-yao-yik.

  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).

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