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Overview

Brief Summary

Guava (Psidium guajava) is a well known cultivated tree because of the paste and jelly made from its fruits. The fruit (which is technically a type of berry) has a thin, yellow, slightly sour edible outer layer; within, there are numerous yellow seeds more than 3 to 5 mm long in a juicy pinkish or yellow pulp. The fruits are unusually rich in vitamin C. The outer layer of the fruit is preserved and canned commercially, as is the juice. (Little and Wadsworth 1964)

Guava is native to tropical America, probably from southern Mexico south to South America, but its range has been dramatically increased via cultivation. It is now cultivated (and escaped and naturalized and often considered an invasive pest) in southern Florida (including the Florida Keys), Bermuda, and throughout the West Indies from the Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad, and south to Brazil. It is also cultivated and naturalized in much of the Old World tropics and subtropics. (Little and Wadsworth 1964) Guava was first recorded from the Pacific Islands (Hawaii) by the early 1800s (Whistler 1995). It is common in dry to wet disturbed areas such as pastures, waste places, and roadsides, as well as in scrub forest up to 1200 meters elevation, among other habitats.

Guava is a shrubby evergreen tree up to 10 meters in height, with smooth reddish brown bark that is thin and scales off in thin sheets. It has oppositely arranged oblong or elliptic leaves with sunken parallel veins and minute glandular dots. The fragrant white flowers are large, measuring about 4 cm across the 4 or 5 large petals, and bear numerous showy brushlike stamens with slender white filaments averaging about 1.2 cm long. The flowers are mostly borne singly at leaf bases. The edible fruits are yellow and rounded (sometimes pear-shaped), 3 to 10 cm in diameter, with 4 or 5 retained sepals at the apex. (Little and Wadsworth 1964; Whistler 1995)

The related Strawberry Guava (Psidium cattleianum) is another native of tropical America that has spread widely in the tropics, including the Pacific Islands (where it was first recorded, in Hawaii, in 1825) and southern Florida (U.S.A.). Like P. guajava, it is often considered an aggressive weed. It has leathery leaves and the fruit (generally much smaller than that of P. guajava) is red (sometimes yellow) with a white pulp. (Whistler 1995)

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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Plains to Low Altitude, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree Distribution notes: Exotic
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Description

Evergreen or semi-deciduous small tree with distinctive flaking yellow and light brown bark.
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Derivation of specific name

guajava: South American spanish name for the Guava
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Originally from Tropical America; now naturalised in the tropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Nasik, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane Karnataka: Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts"
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Worldwide distribution

Native of tropical America; naturalised elsewhere
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Guava (Psidium guajava) is native to tropical America, probably from southern Mexico south to South America, but its range has been dramatically increased via cultivation. It is now cultivated (and escaped and naturalized and often considered an invasive pest) in southern Florida (including the Florida Keys), Bermuda, and throughout the West Indies from the Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad, and south to Brazil. It is also cultivated and naturalized in much of the Old World tropics and subtropics. (Little and Wadsworth 1964) It was first recorded from the Pacific Islands (Hawaii) by the early 1800s (Whistler 1995).

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Tropical America, widely planted and naturalised in Tropical Asia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Guava (Psidium guajava) is a shrubby small evergreen tree (rarely with straight stems) up to 10 meters in height, with smooth reddish brown bark that is thin and scales off in thin sheets. It has oppositely arranged oblong or elliptic leaves with sunken parallel veins and minute glandular dots. The fragrant white flowers are large, measuring about 4 cm across the 4 or 5 large petals, and bear numerous showy brushlike stamens with slender white filaments averaging about 1.2 cm long. The flowers are mostly borne singly at leaf bases. The edible guava fruits are yellow and rounded (sometimes pear-shaped), 3 to 10 cm in diameter, with 4 or 5 retained sepals at the apex. (Little and Wadsworth 1964; Whistler 1995)

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Description

Trees, to 13 m tall. Bark gray, smooth, peeling in strips. Branchlets angular, pubescent. Petiole ca. 5 mm; leaf blade oblong to elliptic, 6-12 × 3.5-6 cm, leathery, abaxially pubescent, adaxially slightly rough, secondary veins 12-15 on each side of midvein and usually impressed, reticulate veins obvious, base rounded, apex acute to obtuse. Flowers solitary or 2 or 3 in cymes. Hypanthium campanulate, ca. 5 mm, pubescent. Calyx cap nearly rounded, 7-8 mm, irregularly opening. Petals white, 1-1.4 cm. Stamens 6-9 mm. Ovary adnate to hypanthium. Style as long as stamens. Berry globose, ovoid, or pyriform, 3-8 cm, with persistent calyx lobes at apex; flesh white or yellow; placenta reddish, well developed, fleshy. Seeds many. Fl. summer.
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Elevation Range

450-1200 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Small trees. Stem smooth with pealing bark. Young stem 4-angled. Leaves l6-11 x 2.5-5 cm, elliptic-oblong, base rounded to obtuse-cuneate, apex acute-apiculate, hirsute on both sides when young, glabrous on ageing except the nerves, thin-coriaceous, lateral nerves prominent; petioles 0.6-1 cm long. Cymes axillary, 1-3-flowered; peduncles 0.5-1.2 cm long; pedicel short or 0. Calyx tube 4-9 mm long, ovoid, densely hirsute; lobes 4, unitedland closed in bud. Petals 4, white, 1-1.5 cm long, broadly ovate, caducous. Stamens many. Ovary globose, many-celled; ovules numerous; style subulate. Berry 2.5-3.5 cm diam., globose crowned by persistent calyx lobes. Seeds many, embedded in fleshy pulp."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Synonym

Guajava pyrifera (Linnaeus) Kuntze; Myrtus guajava (Linnaeus) Kuntze; Psidium pomiferum Linnaeus; P. pyriferum Linnaeus.
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Look Alikes

Lookalikes

The Strawberry Guava (Psidium cattleianum) is another native of tropical America that has spread widely in the tropics, including the Pacific Islands (where it was first recorded, in Hawaii, in 1825) and southern Florida (U.S.A.). Like P. guajava, it is often considered an aggressive weed. It has leathery leaves and the fruit (generally much smaller than that of P. guajava) is red (sometimes yellow) with a white pulp. (Whistler 1995)

In southern Florida and the Caribbean, the native P. longipes is more rarely encountered than P. guajava. Compared with P. guajava, it has smaller leaves (with tips sometimes notched) and the much smaller ripe fruits are dark rather than yellow. (Elias 1980; Petrides 1988)

Other Psidium species are found in Mexico and Central and South America.

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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Cultivated
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In the Pacific Islands, Guava (Psidium guajava) is common in dry to wet disturbed areas such as pastures, waste places, and scrub forest up to 1200 meters elevation (Whistler 1995). In Puerto Rico, it forms thickets and spreads in pastures, especially on the coastal plains but also in the lower mountain regions (Little and Wadsworth 1964). In southern Florida, it now grows wild along roadsides, in old fields, and in hardwood hammocks (Elias 1980), among other habitats.

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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated and sometimes naturalized in Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, and Yunnan [native to tropical America].
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Associations

Known Pests: ANASTREPHA, FRUIT FLIES, DACUS DORALIS, CERATITIS M

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Population Biology

Frequency

Common
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-May
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Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL, Long-lived

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Reproduction

Guava (Psidium guajava) flowers and fruits nearly year-round (Little and Wadsworth 1964).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Psidium guajava

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 32
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Native of tropical America from southern Mexico to South America. (The range greatly extended through cultivation. Planted and naturalized also in southern Florida including Florida Keys, Bermuda, and throughout West Indies from Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad, and south to Brazil. Chiefly on the coastal plains but also in the lower mountain regions of Puerto Rico.)

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: FOOD, Fruit

Production Methods: Cultivated

Comments: Cultivated for its Fruit throughout neotropics and many other tropical regions.

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Uses

Guava (Psidium guajava) is commonly cultivated as a fruit tree. The fruit (which is technically a type of berry) has a thin, yellow, slightly sour edible outer layer; within, there are numerous yellow seeds more than 3 to 5 mm long in a juicy pinkish or yellow pulp. The fruits are unusually rich in vitamin C. The outer layer of the fruit is preserved and canned commercially, as is the juice. Guava powder has been prepared from the dehydrated fruits as well. In some regions, the bark has been used for tanning. Extracts from leaves, bark, roots, and buds have been used in folk medicine. (Little and Wadsworth 1964)

Guava leaves are often boiled into a tea to treat diarrhea on many of the Pacific Islands (Whistler 1995).

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Risks

Risk Statement

In the Pacific Islands, Guava (Psidium guajava) was originally introduced for its edible fruit, but is now a serious weed in pastures and elsewhere (Whistler 1995). It is considered invasive in Florida, as well (Gann et al. 2008).

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Wikipedia

Psidium guajava

flower
Leafbud
Common guava seedling, 14 months

The apple guava or common guava (Psidium guajava; known as goiaba in Portuguese and guayaba in Spanish) is an evergreen shrub or small tree native to the Caribbean, Central America and South America.[1] It is easily pollinated by insects; in culture, mainly by the common honey bee, Apis mellifera.

Overview[edit]

P.guajava fruit

Widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, guava fruits can range in size from as small as an apricot to as large as a grapefruit. Various cultivars have white, pink, or red flesh, and a few also feature red (instead of green) skin.

When cultivated from seed, guavas are notable for an extremely slow growth rate for several months, before a very rapid acceleration in growth rate takes over. From seed, common guavas may bloom and set fruit in as few as 2 years, or as many as 8. Cuttings and grafting are more commonly used as a propagation method in commercial groves. Highly adaptable, guavas can be easily grown as container plants in temperate regions, though their ability to bloom and set fruit is somewhat less predictable. In some tropical locales, guavas can become invasive. It has become a major problem in the Galápagos Islands.[2]

The plant is used in many different shampoo products for its scent. It is also becoming a popular bonsai species and is currently quite popular in India and Eastern Asia.[3]

Climate and soil[edit]

Owing to its hardy nature, guava is grown successfully in tropical and subtropical regions up to 1,500 m above mean sea-level. Best quality guavas are obtained where low night temperatures (10 °C) prevail during winter. It tolerates high temperatures and drought conditions in North India during summers but it is susceptible to severe frost as it can kill the young plants. An annual rainfall of about 100 centimetres (39 in) is sufficient during the rainy season (July- September). The rains during harvesting period, however, deteriorate the quality of fruits.

Guava is cultivated on varied types of soils- heavy clay to very light sandy soils. Nevertheless, very good quality guavas are produced in river-basins. It tolerates a soil pH of 4.5-8.2. Maximum concentration of its feeding roots is available up to 25 cm soil depth. Thus the top soil should be quite rich to provide enough nutrients for accelerating new growth which bears fruits.

Varieties[edit]

The varietals characteristics in guava are not as distinct as found in majority of other fruits. Its propagation through seeds reduces the distinctive characteristics of a variety in commercial cultivation. Important guava varieties are:

Lucknow 49 Also known as Sardar, its fruits are large, roundish ovate in shape, skin primrose yellow and pulp white, very sweet and tasty. The TSS and vitamin C contents are high. The trees are vigorous.

Allahabad Safeda The most famous variety of Allahabad, it has acquired large variations due to seed propagation. The fruits are large in size, round in shape, skin smooth and yellowish white. The flesh is white, firm, soft having pleasant flavour, high TSS and vitamin C content. The seeds are numerous, bold and hard. The trees are tall with profuse branching and broad crown. It can withstand drought conditions.[4]

Chittidar The variety is very popular in western Uttar Pradesh. The fruits are characterized by numerous red dots on the skin, high sweetness, and small and soft seeds. It is otherwise similar to Allahabad safeda fruits in size, shape and pulp. It has higher TSS content than Allahabad Safeda and Lucknow 49 but lower vitamin C content. The tree characters resemble to those of Allahabad Safeda.[5]

Harijha Harijha is more popular in Bihar because of profuse bearing. The trees are of medium vigour due to sparse branching. The fruit is round in shape, medium large in size and greenish yellow in color. Flavour is sweet with good keeping quality.

Hafshi It is a red- fleshed guava having good taste. It is mainly grown in Bihar. Fruit is of moderately big sized, spherical in shape with thin skin. Trees are of medium vigour but productive.

Apple guava Its fruits are medium sized and pink colored. They are sweet in taste with good keeping quality. They require low temperature for the development of good pink color. The trees are of medium vigour but their leaves are greener than others. However, it is a moderate yielder.

Fruits of sebia (looking like apple) variety low temperature for the development of good pink color. The trees are of medium vigour but their leaves are greener than others. However, it is a moderate yielder.

Seedless All the seedless varieties viz. Saharanpur Seedless, Nagpur seedless and others, are the same. Two types of fruits, completely seedless and partly seeded, are borne on a plant of seedless variety. The completely seedless fruits develop on the shoots rising from the stem and these are bigger in size and irregular in shape. The partly seeded fruits are born on normal shoots at the periphery and are small in size and round in shape. Seedless variety is unfit for commercial cultivation because it gives very low yield. The plants are very vigorous.

Arka Mridula This is a seedling selection of variety Allahabad Safeda. Its medium sized fruits are of excellent quality with high TSS. The white pulp has only few soft seeds. The plants are of medium vigour but high yielding.

Allahabad Surkha Allahabad Surkha is an outstanding variety of large, uniform pink fruits with deep pink flesh. The plants produce up to 120 kg fruits in its sixth year of fruiting. The fruit is sweet, strongly flavoured with few seeds and is slightly depressed at both ends. The plants are vigorous, dome shaped and compact.

Chemistry[edit]

The leaves of P. guajava contains the flavonol morin, morin-3-O-lyxoside, morin-3-O-arabinoside, quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Psidium guajava". Germplasm Resources Information Network. USDA. October 17, 1995. Retrieved February 6, 2009. 
  2. ^ http://www.wondermondo.com/Countries/SA/Ecuador/Galapagos/ScalesiaSantaCruz.htm
  3. ^ D'Cruz, Mark. "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Psidium guajava". Ma-Ke Bonsai. Retrieved April 22, 2011. 
  4. ^ http://www.fruitipedia.com/guava.htm
  5. ^ http://www.fruitipedia.com/guava.htm
  6. ^ Bacteriostatic effect of flavonoids isolated from leaves of Psidium guajava on fish pathogens. Rattanachaikunsopon Pongsak and Phumkhachorn Parichat, Fitoterapia, 2007, volume 78, number 6, pages 434-436, INIST:19087798
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Notes

Comments

Psidium guajava has become naturalized in disturbed habitats in many tropical parts of the world.
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