The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Austin, D. F. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in south east Florida. Environmental Conservation. 5. 25-34 p
  • Balciunas, J. K., Burrows, D.W., Edwards, E.D. 1993. Herbivorous insects associated with the paperbark tree Melaleuca quinquenervia and its allies: II. Geometridae (Lepidoptera). Australian Entomologist. 20(3):91-98 p.
  • Blake, S.T. 1968. A revision of Melaleuca leucadendron and its allies (Myrtaceae). Contributions to the Queensland Herbarium, 1:1-114.
  • Boland, D.J., Brooker, M.I.H., Chippendale, G.M., Hall, N., Hyland, B.P.M., Johnston, R.D., Kleinig, D.A. & Turner, J.D. 1984. Forest trees of Australia. Forest trees of Australia. 1984 pp. xvi + 687.
  • Booth, T.H. & Jovanovic, T. 1988. Assaying natural climatic variability in some Australian species with fuelwood and agroforestry potential. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 67(1):27-34.
  • Butcher, P.A., Bell, J.C. & Moran, G. F. 1992. Patterns of genetic diversity and nature of the breeding system in Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae). Australian Journal of Botany, 40(3):365-375
  • Center, T. D. 1992. Biological control of weeds in waterways and on public lands in the southern-eastern United States of America. Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress. 1:256-263.
  • Cherrier J. F. 1981. The niaouli in New Caledonia. Le niaouli en Nouvelle-Caledonie (Melaleuca quinquenervia S.T. Blake). Revue Forestiere Francaise, 33(4):297-311; 5 pl.
  • Cronk Q.C.B. & Fuller J.L. 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp.
  • Davidse, G., M. Sousa Sánchez, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera. 2009. Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae. 4(1): i–xvi, 1–855. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera (eds.) Fl. Mesoamer. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
  • Doran, J. C. & Turnbull, J. W. 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. 1997 pp. viii + 384 pp.
  • Dray, F. A. Jr., Bennett, B. C. & Center, T. D. 2006. Invasion history of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake in Florida,. Castanea 71(3): 210-225.
  • Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1991. Exotic Woody Plant Control, Ken Langeland, ed.
  • Funk, V. A., P. E. Berry, S. Alexander, T. H. Hollowell & C. L. Kelloff. 2007. Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584.
  • GISD (Global Invasive Species Database). 2010. Melaleuca quinquenervia . UICN. Consultado el 23 de noviembre 2011 en
  • Geary, T. 1988. Casuarina equisetifolia L. Johnson. Useful Trees of Tropical North America. In: Burns, R.M. & Mosquera, M. eds. North American Forestry Commission Publication No. 3. Washington, DC, USA: North American Forestry Commission.
  • Geary, T. F. & Woodall, S. L. 1990. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake. Melaleuca. Silvics of North America: Volume 2.Hardwoods. Burns, R. M., Honkala, B. H., eds. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 461-465
  • Geary, T.F. 1988. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) ST Blake. Useful Trees of Tropical North America. Burns, R.M. & Mosquera, M. eds. North American Forestry Commission Publication No. 3. Washington, DC, USA: North American Forestry Commission.
  • Gillison, A. N. 1983. Tropical savannas of Australia and the Southwest Pacific. Ecosystems of the World 13. Bourlier, F. ed. Tropical savannas Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co, 183-243
  • Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 1–944. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Gomes, A. R. & Kozlowski, T. T. 1980. Flooding effects on Melaleuca quinquenervia: Responses of Melaleuca quinquenervia seedlings to flooding,. Physiol. Plant. 49: 373-377.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Grover, D. R., Slater, P. J. 1994. Conservation value to birds of remnants of Melaleuca forest in suburban Brisbane. Wildlife Research, 21(4):433-444.
  • Hepting, G. H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United States. Agric. Hand. 386. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 658 p
  • Holliday, I. 1989. A field guide to melaleucas. Port Melbourne, Australia: Hamlyn Australia.
  • ISC (Invasive Species Compendium). 2011. Melaleuca quinquenervia . Consultado el 23 de noviembre 2011 en Edition. © CAB International, Wallingford, UK
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Fl. Antioquia: Cat. 2: 9–939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Johnston, S.G., Slavich, P.G. & Hirst, P. 2003. Alteration of groundwater and sediment geochemistry in a sulfidic backswamp due to Melaleuca quinquenervia encroachment. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 41(7):1343-1367.
  • Laroche, F.B. 1999. Melaleuca Management Plan: Ten Years of Successful Melaleuca Management in Florida (1988 - 1998). Florida EPPC (Exotic Pest Plant Council)
  • Lee, E. W. S., Hau, B. C. H, & Corlett, R. T. 2005. Natural regeneration in exotic tree plantations in Hong Kong, China. Forest Ecology and Management, 212(1/3):358-366.
  • Liogier, A. H. 1994. Spermatophyta: Cyrillaceae to Myrtaceae. Descr. Fl. Puerto Rico & Adj. Isl. 3: 1–461.
  • Liogier, H. & L. Martorell. 1982. Fl. Puerto Rico Adj. Islands 1–342. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Río Piedras.
  • Long, R. W. & O. K. Lakela. 1971. Fl. Trop. Florida i–xvii, 1–962. University of Miami Press, Coral Cables.
  • Loope, L., Duever, M., Herndon, A., Snyder., J. & Jansen, D. 1994. Hurricane impact on uplands and freshwater swamp forest. BioScience, 44(4):238-246.
  • Marcar, N. E., Crawford, D. F., Leppert, P.L., Jovanovic, T., Floyd, R. & Farrow, R. 1995. Trees for saltland : a guide to selecting native species for Australia. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO. 
  • Mazzotti, F.J., T.D. Center, F.A. Dray, and D. Thayer. Ecological Consequences of Invasion by Melaleuca quinquenervia in South Florida Wetlands: Paradise Damaged, not Lost.
  • Meskimen, G.F. 1962. A silvical study of the melaleuca tree in south Florida.Gainesville, FL. Tesis de M. S. University of Florida.
  • Munger, G. T. 2005. Melaleuca quinquenervia. Fire Effects Information System. Consultado el 23 de noviembre 2011 en U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences.
  • PIER. 2007. Melaleuca quinquenervia . Consultado el 24 de noviembre 2011 en Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.
  • PIER. 2009. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake, Myrtaceae. Consultado el 25 de noviembre 2011 en
  • Pool, A. 2001. Callistemon, Meleleuca, Eucalyptus. En: Stevens, W.D., C. Ulloa, A. Pool & O.M. Montiel (eds.), Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 1565–1566, 1568–1569, 1574–1575.
  • Pratt, P. D., Quevedo, V., Bernier, L., Sustache, J. & Center, T. D. 2005. Invasions of Puerto Rican Wetlands by the Australian Tree Melaleuca quinquenervia. Caribbean Journal of Science,. 41(1): 42-54.
  • Pratt, P. D., Rayamajhi, M. B., Silvers, C. S. & Ferriter, A. P. 2007. Naturalization and biomass allocation of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in wetlands of the Bahamas. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 45: 8-16.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 69(7): 76. 1958. (Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland)
  • Purcell, M. F. & Balciunas, J. K. 1994. Life history and distribution of the Australian weevil Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential biological control agent for Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87(6):867-873
  • Randall, J.M. and J. Marinelli. 1996. Invasive Plants: Weeds of the Global Garden. Brooklyn Botanic Garden Club, Inc., Handbook No. 149. Pp. 36
  • S.T.Blake. 1958. In: Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 69: 76
  • Schultz, D.P., T.W. Barnes, and J.M. Kleen. 1987. Melaleuca control at Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA and Boynton Beach, FL.
  • Stablein, J.J., Bucholtz, G.A., Lockey, R. F. 2002. Melaleuca tree and respiratory disease. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 89(5):523-530.
  • Stevens, W. D., C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: i–xlii,.
  • Swearingen, J. 2009. WeedUS Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States: Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia).
  • Swearingen, J. M. 1997. Australian Pine. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group.
  • USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database ( National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
  • Valet, B., Trilles, B., Bouraïma-Madjebi, S. 1998. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cavanilles) ST Blake, Niaouli. Southwell, I.A., ed. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles-Melaleuca. The Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers.
  • Watt, M. S., Kriticos, D. J. & Manning, L. K. 2009. The current and future potential distribution of Melaleuca quinquenervia. Weed Research Volume. 49(4):381-390.
  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.
  • World Agroforestry Centre. 2002. Agroforestree Database. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. Austin, D. F. 1981. Personal communication. Florida Atlantic  University, Boca Raton.
    3. Blake, S. T. 1968. A revision of Melaleuca leucadendron  and its allies (Myrtaceae). Contribution 1, Queensland  (Australia) Herbarium, Department of Primary Industries,  Brisbane. 114 p.
    5. Boland, D. J.; Brooker, M. I. H.; Chippendale, G. M., and  others. 1984. Forest trees of Australia. 4th ed.  Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research  Organization, East Melbourne, Australia. 687 p. 
    7. Coaldrake, J. E. 1961. The ecosystem of the coastal  lowlands ("wallum") of Southern Queensland. CSIRO  Bulletin 283. Melbourne, Australia. 
      138 p.
    9. Conde, L. F. 1979. Growth studies in natural stands of Melaleuca  quinquenervia and Casuarina equisetifolia in  south Florida. Unpublished Final Report, Supplement 30 to  Contract A8fs-9,961. University of Florida, School of Forest  Resources and Conservation, Gainesville. 23 p.
    11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    13. Geary, T. F. Unpublished data on file. Southeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Lehigh Acres, FL.
    15. Geiger, R. K., comp. 1981. Proceedings of melaleuca  symposium, Fort Myers, FL, September 23-24, 1980. Florida  Division of Forestry, Tallahassee, 140 p.
    17. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    19. Johnston, R. D. 1981. Personal communication. CSIRO Division  of Forest Research, Canberra, A.C.T., Australia.
    21. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    23. Little, Elbert L., Jr. Undated. Common fuelwood crops: a  handbook for their identification. Communi-Tech Associates,  Morgantown, West Virginia. 354 p.
    25. Little, Elbert L., Jr., Roy 0. Woodbury, and Frank H.  Wadsworth. 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin  Islands. vol. 11. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 449. Washington, DC. 1,024 p.
    27. Meskimen, G. F. 1962. A silvical study of the melaleuca tree  in south Florida. Thesis (M.S.), University of Florida,  Gainesville. 177 p.
    29. Mincey, W. F., H. E. Yates, and K. D. Butson. 1967. South  Florida weather summary, Weather Forecasting Mimeo WEA 68-1.  U.S. Department of Commerce Weather Bureau and University of  Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Federal-State  Agricultural Weather Service, Lakeland, FL. 30 p.
    31. Morton, J. F. 1966. The cajeput tree: a boon and an  affliction. Economic Botany 20:31-39.
    33. Myers, R. L. 1975. The relationship of site conditions to  the invading capability of Melaleuca quinquenervia in  southwest Florida. Thesis (M.S.), University of Florida,  Gainesville. 151 p.
    35. National Research Council. 1983. Firewood crops, shrub and  tree species for energy production. Vol. 2. National Academy  Press, Washington, DC. 92 p.
    37. Panouse-Perrin, J. 1955. Propos d'actualité sur les  melaleuca. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 43:21-26. 
    39. Skolmen, R. G. 1981. Personal communication. Pacific  Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Honolulu, HL 
    41. Trewartha, G. T. 1968. An introduction to climate. 4th ed.  McGraw-Hill, New York. 408 p.
    43. Turnbull, John W., ed. 1986. Multipurpose Australian trees  and shrubs: lesser known species for fuelwood and  agroforestry. ACIAR Monograph 1. Australian Centre for  International Agricultural Research, G.P.O. Box 1571,  Canberra, A.C.T. 2601. 316 p.
    45. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.  1975. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification  for making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil Survey Staff,  comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  436. Washington, DC. 754 p.
    47. Wade, D., J. Ewel, and R. Hofstetter. 1980. Fire in south  Florida ecosystems. USDA Forest Service, General Technical  Report SE-17. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station,  Asheville, NC. 125 p.
    49. Woodall, S. L. 1982. Seed dispersal in Melaleuca  quinquenervia. Florida Scientist 45(2):81-93.


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