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Aronia

Not to be confused with Malus floribunda, also called purple chokeberry

Aronia is a genus of deciduous shrubs, the chokeberries, in the family Rosaceae, native to eastern North America and most commonly found in wet woods and swamps.[2][3][4] The genus is usually considered to contain two[5] or three[4][6] species, one of which is naturalized in Europe.[7] A fourth form that has long been cultivated under the name Aronia[6] is now considered to be an intergeneric hybrid, Sorbaronia mitschurinii.

Chokeberries are cultivated as ornamental plants and as food products. The berries can be eaten raw off the bush, but are more frequently processed. They can be found in wine, jam, syrup, juice, soft spreads, tea, salsa, chili starters, extracts, beer, ice cream, gummies and tinctures.[8] The name "chokeberry" comes from the astringency of the fruits, which create a sensation making one's mouth pucker.[8]

Chokeberries are often mistakenly called chokecherries, which is the common name for Prunus virginiana. Further adding to the ambiguity, a variety of Prunus virginiana is named melanocarpa.[9][10] This is easily confused with Aronia melanocarpa, commonly referred to as "black chokeberry" or "aronia berry". Aronia berries and chokecherries are both high in polyphenolic pigment compounds, like anthocyanins, further contributing to confusion. In fact, the two plants are only distantly related within the Rosaceae family.

Identification and taxonomy[edit]

The leaves are alternate, simple, and oblanceolate with crenate margins and pinnate venation; in autumn the leaves turn a bold red color. Dark trichomes are present on the upper midrib surface. The flowers are small, with 5 petals and 5 sepals, and produced in corymbs of 10-25 together. Hypanthium is urn-shaped. The fruit is a small pome, with a very astringent flavor.

Aronia has been thought to be closely related to Photinia, and has been included in that genus in some classifications,[11] but botanist Cornelis Kalkman observed that a combined genus should be under the older name Aronia.[12] The combined genus contains about 65 species.[13] In 2004, Kalkman expressed doubt about the monophyly of the combined group, and new molecular studies confirm this.[1][14] They do not place these two genera together or even near one another.

In eastern North America, there are two well-known species, named after their fruit color, red chokeberry and black chokeberry, plus a purple chokeberry whose origin is a natural hybrid of the two.[13] A fourth species, Aronia mitschurinii, that apparently originated in cultivation, is also known as Sorbaronia mitschurinii.[15]

Red chokeberry, Aronia arbutifolia (Photinia pyrifolia), grows to 2–4m tall, rarely up to 6 m. Leaves are 5–8 cm wide and densely pubescent on the underside. The flowers are white or pale pink, 1 cm wide, with glandular sepals. The fruit is red, 4–10 mm wide, persisting into winter.

Black Chokeberry flowers and leaves (Aronia melanocarpa)

Black chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa (Photinia melanocarpa),[2] tends to be smaller, rarely exceeding 1 m tall, rarely 3 m, and spreads readily by root sprouts. The leaves are smaller, not more than 6-cm wide, with terminal glands on leaf teeth and a glabrous underside. The flowers are white, 1.5 cm wide, with glabrous sepals. The fruit is black, 6–9 mm wide, not persisting into winter.

The Purple chokeberry, Aronia prunifolia (Photinia floribunda)[3] apparently originated as a hybrid of the black and red chokeberries but might be more accurately considered a distinct species than a hybrid[13] (see also nothospecies). Leaves are moderately pubescent on the underside. Few to no glands are present on the sepal surface. The fruit is dark purple to black, 7–10 mm in width, not persisting into winter. There are purple chokeberry populations which seem to be self-sustaining independent of the two parent species – including an introduced one in northern Germany where neither parent species occurs – leading botanist Alan Weakley to consider it a full species rather than a hybrid.[13] The range of the purple chokeberry is roughly that of the black chokeberry; it is found in areas (such as Michigan and Missouri) where the red chokeberry is not.[16]

Products and uses[edit]

Red chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia)

The chokeberries are attractive ornamental plants for gardens. They are naturally understory and woodland edge plants, and grow well when planted under trees. Chokeberries are resistant to drought, insects, pollution, and disease. A number of Cultivars, including A. arbutifolia 'Brilliant' and A. melanocarpa 'Autumn magic', have been selected for their striking fall leaf color.

The Voruta label exports a Chokeberry wine from Lithuania. In Poland they are dried to make a herbal tea which may be blended with other more flavorful ingredients including blackcurrant.[17] Aronia is also used as a flavoring or colorant for beverages or yogurts.[17] Juice from the ripe berries is astringent, semi-sweet (moderate sugar content), sour (low pH), and contains a low level of vitamin C.[18] The berries have their own unique flavor and in addition to juice they can be baked into soft breads.[17] In the United States and Canada, aronia berries are used in juice blends for color and marketed for their antioxidant properties.

Polyphenol content[edit]

Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) has attracted scientific interest due to its deep purple, almost black pigmentation that arises from dense contents of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. Total polyphenol content is 1752 mg per 100 g in fresh berries,[19] anthocyanin content is 1480 mg per 100 g, and proanthocyanidin concentration is 664 mg per 100 g.[20][21] These values are among the highest measured in plants to date. The black aronia species contains higher levels of anthocyanins than purple (Aronia prunifolia) or red aronia (Aronia arbutifolia), whereas the order of total polyphenols was reported as purple = red > black.[22]

The plant produces these pigments mainly in the leaves and skin of the berries to protect the pulp and seeds from constant exposure to ultraviolet radiation and production of free radicals.[23][24][25] By absorbing UV rays in the blue-purple spectrum, leaf and skin pigments filter intense sunlight, serve antioxidant functions and thereby have a role assuring regeneration of the species. Brightly colorful pigmentation also attracts birds and other animals to consume the fruit and disperse the seeds in their droppings.[26]

Analysis of polyphenols in chokeberries has identified the following individual chemicals (among hundreds known to exist in the plant kingdom): cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, quercetin-3-glycoside, epicatechin, caffeic acid, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin.[20][27][28] All these except caffeic acid are members of the flavonoid category of phenolics.

For reference to phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and similar plant-derived phytochemicals,[19] Wikipedia has a list of phytochemicals and foods in which they are prominent.

ORAC Score[edit]

In a standard measurement of antioxidant strength, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC, demonstrates aronia to have one of the highest values yet recorded for a fruit — 16,062 micromoles of Trolox Eq. per 100 g.[20] The components contributing to this high measurement were both anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, with the proanthocyanidin level "among the highest in foods, which may explain their potent astringent taste."[20]

No relevant correlation between ORAC score and human health has been demonstrated, and some scientists consider it biologically irrelevant to human nutrition.[29]

Preliminary research[edit]

Basic research on aronia has addressed potential mechanisms for reducing risk of disease. Models under evaluation include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Potter, D., et al. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43. [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"]
  2. ^ a b "Photinia melanocarpa (Michx.) K.R. Robertson & Phipps". USDA PLANTS. 
  3. ^ a b "Photinia floribunda". USDA PLANTS. 
  4. ^ a b A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, and B. S. Walters (February 2011). "Michigan Flora Online". University of Michigan. Retrieved 2013-11-29. 
  5. ^ Mark Brand (2010). "Aronia: Native Shrubs With Untapped Potential". Arnoldia 67 (3): 14–25. 
  6. ^ a b "USDA GRIN entry for Aronia". 
  7. ^ "USDA GRIN Taxonomy, distribution entry for Aronia × prunifolia". 
  8. ^ a b Everhart, Eldon (March 4, 2009). "Aronia - A New Crop for Iowa". Retrieved May 24, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Prunus virginiana L. var. melanocarpa (A. Nelson) Sarg.: black chokecherry". United States Department of Agriculture. 
  10. ^ Prunus virginiana melanocarpa, Black Chokecherry
  11. ^ Robertson, K. R., J. B. Phipps, J. R. Rohrer, and P. G. Smith. 1991. A synopsis of genera in Maloideae (Rosaceae). Systematic Botany 16:376–394.
  12. ^ Kalkman, C. 2004. Rosaceae. In The families and genera of vascular plants. Edited by K. Kubitzki. Springer, Berlin. pp. 343–386, isbn=3-540-06512-1. in Google books, page 377
  13. ^ a b c d Alan S. Weakley (April 2008). "Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia, and Surrounding Areas". 
  14. ^ Campbell C. S., R. C. Evans, D. R. Morgan, T. A. Dickinson, and M. P. Arsenault (2007). "Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history". Pl. Syst. Evol. 266: 119–145. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0545-y. 
  15. ^ Sennikov, A.N.; Phipps, J.B. (2013). "Atlas Florae Europaeae notes, 19 – 22. Nomenclatural changes and taxonomic adjustments in some native and introduced species of Malinae (Rosaceae) in Europe". Willdenowia - Annals of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem 43 (1): 33–44. doi:10.3372/wi.43.43104. 
  16. ^ James W. Hardin ((May - Jun., 1973)). "The Enigmatic Chokeberries (Aronia, Rosaceae)". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 100 (3): 178–184. doi:10.2307/2484630. JSTOR 2484630. 
  17. ^ a b c Steven A. McKay (March 17, 2004). "Demand increasing for aronia and elderberry in North America". New York Berry News 3 (11). 
  18. ^ Skupien K, Oszmianski J (2007). "The effect of mineral fertilization on nutritive value and biological activity of chokeberry fruit". Agric Food Sci 16: 46–55. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  19. ^ a b "Total polyphenols in black chokeberry". http://www.phenol-explorer.eu. Phenol-Explorer. 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  20. ^ a b c d Wu X, Gu L, Prior RL, McKay S (2004). "Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in some cultivars of Ribes, Aronia and Sambucus and their antioxidant capacity". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52 (26): 7846–56. doi:10.1021/jf0486850. PMID 15612766. 
  21. ^ Wu X et al. (2006). "Concentrations of anthocyanins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (1): 4069–75. doi:10.1021/jf060300l. PMID 16719536. 
  22. ^ Taheri, R; Connolly, B. A.; Brand, M. H.; Bolling, B. W. (2013). "Underutilized chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa, Aronia arbutifolia, Aronia prunifolia) accessions are rich sources of anthocyanins, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and proanthocyanidins". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (36): 8581–8. doi:10.1021/jf402449q. PMID 23941506.  edit
  23. ^ Simon PW (1996). "Plant pigments for color and nutrition". United States Department of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  24. ^ Lee, J. E.; Kim, G. S.; Park, S; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, M. B.; Lee, W. S.; Jeong, S. W.; Lee, S. J.; Jin, J. S.; Shin, S. C. (2014). "Determination of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) polyphenol components using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Overall contribution to antioxidant activity". Food Chemistry 146: 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.029. PMID 24176305.  edit
  25. ^ Ipatova, O. M.; Prozorovskaia, N. N.; Rusina, I. F.; Prozorovskiĭ, V. N. (2003). "Antioxidant properties of a leaf extract from Aronia (Aronia melanocarba) containing proanthocyanidins". Biomeditsinskaia khimiia 49 (2): 165–76. PMID 14565080.  edit
  26. ^ "Anthocyanins FAQ". MadSci Network. 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  27. ^ Neveu V et al. (2010). "Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods". Centre de Recherche de Clermont-Ferrand, France. doi:10.1093/database/bap024. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  28. ^ Taheri, R; Connolly, B. A.; Brand, M. H.; Bolling, B. W. (2013). "Underutilized chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa, Aronia arbutifolia, Aronia prunifolia) accessions are rich sources of anthocyanins, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and proanthocyanidins". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (36): 8581–8. doi:10.1021/jf402449q. PMID 23941506.  edit
  29. ^ Gross, P (2009). "New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part report on Current Regulations & the State of Science". Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Media. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 
  30. ^ Kim, B.; Ku, C. S.; Pham, T. X.; Park, Y.; Martin, D. A.; Xie, L.; Taheri, R.; Lee, J.; Bolling, B. W. (2013). "Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) polyphenol–rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice". Nutrition Research 33 (5): 406–413. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2013.03.001. PMID 23684442.  edit
  31. ^ Lala, G., Malik, M., Zhao, C., He, J., Kwon, Y., Giusti, M. M., & Magnuson, B. A. (2006). "Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats". Nutr Cancer 54 (1): 84–93. PMID 16800776. 
  32. ^ Bell, D. R., & Gochenaur, K (2006). "Direct vasoactive and vasoprotective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts". J Appl Physiol 100 (4): 1164–70. PMID 16339348. 
  33. ^ Han, G.-L., Li, C.-M., Mazza, G., & Yang, X.-G (2005). "Effect of anthocyanin rich fruit extract on PGE2 produced by endothelial cells". Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 34 (5): 581–4. PMID 16329602. 
  34. ^ Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S., Marazova, K., Krasnaliev, I., Galunska, B., Borisova, P., & Belcheva, A (2005). "Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage and oxidative stress in rats". Exp Toxicol Pathol 56 (6): 385–92. PMID 15945278. 
  35. ^ Ohgami, K., Ilieva, I., Shiratori, K., Koyama, Y., Jin, X.-H., Yoshida, K., Kase, S., Kitaichi, N., Suzuki, Y., Tanaka, T., Ohno, S. (2005). "Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis". Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46 (1): 275–81. PMID 15623784. 
  36. ^ Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S., Borisova, P., Galunska, B., Krasnaliev, I., Belcheva, A. (2004). "Hepatoprotective effect of the natural fruit juice from Aronia melanocarpa on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats". Exp Toxicol Pathol 56 (3): 195–201. PMID 15625789. 
  37. ^ Olas, B; Wachowicz, B; Nowak, P; Kedzierska, M; Tomczak, A; Stochmal, A; Oleszek, W; Jeziorski, A; Piekarski, J (2008). "Studies on antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa in blood platelets". Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 59 (4): 823–35. PMID 19212014.  edit
  38. ^ Kedzierska, M; Olas, B; Wachowicz, B; Stochmal, A; Oleszek, W; Jeziorski, A; Piekarski, J; Glowacki, R (2009). "An extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa modulates the generation of superoxide anion radicals in blood platelets from breast cancer patients". Planta Medica 75 (13): 1405–9. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1185718. PMID 19444773.  edit
  39. ^ Ciocoiu, M; Badescu, L; Miron, A; Badescu, M (2013). "The involvement of a polyphenol-rich extract of black chokeberry in oxidative stress on experimental arterial hypertension". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013: 912769. doi:10.1155/2013/912769. PMC 3600185. PMID 23533529.  edit
  40. ^ Rugină, D; Sconţa, Z; Leopold, L; Pintea, A; Bunea, A; Socaciu, C (2012). "Antioxidant activities of chokeberry extracts and the cytotoxic action of their anthocyanin fraction on He La human cervical tumor cells". Journal of Medicinal Food 15 (8): 700–6. doi:10.1089/jmf.2011.0246. PMC 3407391. PMID 22846076.  edit
  41. ^ Xu, J; Mojsoska, B (2013). "The immunomodulation effect of Aronia extract lacks association with its antioxidant anthocyanins". Journal of Medicinal Food 16 (4): 334–42. doi:10.1089/jmf.2012.0151. PMID 23566059.  edit

Further reading[edit]

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