Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Dry, usually rocky or sandy scrub, barrens, open woodlands, prairie, right of ways, less often old field. Generally somewhat disturbed areas but dominated by native vegetation. In the east usually with the taller species of LESPEDEZA.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Associations

Flowering Plants Visited by Thorybes bathyllus in Illinois

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Thorybes bathyllus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Thorybes bathyllus

The Southern Cloudywing (sometimes spelled Southern Cloudy Wing), Thorybes bathyllus, is a North American butterfly in the family Hesperiidae. There are two main reasons why Southern Cloudywings can be difficult to identify: one is individual variation and the other is confusing seasonal forms. In the south, where it has two broods per year, there are two seasonal forms. Spring forms are usually lightly marked and resemble Confused Cloudywings (Thorybes confusis). Summer forms tend to be more boldly marked by comparison, making identification easier. However, summer Confused Cloudywings are also strongly patterned which makes identifying them more difficult. There rapid flight is very erratic, though it is closer to the ground then in some of its close relatives.[1]

Description[edit]

Specimen

On average, the Southern Cloudywing is usually slightly smaller than the North Cloudywing (Thorybes pylades) and about the same size as the Confused Cloudywing. The palps are whitish with a white ring around the eye.[1] There is a white spot on the bend of the antennal club.[2] Males lack a fore wing costal fold. The upper side of the wings is dark brown with the fore wing submarginal area having an aligned row of glassy white spots. Near the fore wing costa is a conspicuous spot in the shape of an hourglass (in spring forms this spot is lacking). In the subapical area there are three to four spots that are either all connected as if they were one mark (summer form) or with the bottom spot slightly offset (spring form).[1][2] The underside of the wings is mottled dark brown with two darker brown bands.[2] In some cases the hind wing may have a variable amount of frosting near the margin.[1] Its wingspan measures 32–38 mm (1.3–1.5 in).[3]

Similar species[edit]

Similar species in the Southern Cloudywings range include the Northern Cloudywing and the Confused Cloudywing.

The Northern Cloudywing has brown palps, the white ring around the eye is not continuous, and males have a fore wing costal fold.[1]

The Confused Cloudywing has grayish-white palps, lacks the white spot on the bend of the antennal club, and on the upper side of the fore wing the subapical spots are more loosely connected with the bottom spot quite offset.[1]

Habitat[edit]

This butterfly may be found in a variety of open habitats such as along streams, meadows, savannas, scrubby fields, and woodlands.[1][2][3]

Flight[edit]

This species is on the wing from June to mid-July in the north and March to November in the south.[4]

Life cycle[edit]

Males are highly territorial and are known to use the same perch throughout their adult lifespan.[1] Females lay their pale green eggs singly on the underside of host plant leaves. The larva lives in a leaf shelter by rolling or tying leaves together with silk. The larva is brown with a greenish hue. It has a dark middorsal stripe and has a pale lateral line. The head and collar are both black. The pupa is either greenish with brown markings or a dull brown color. It overwinters as a mature larva.[4] The Southern Cloudywing has 1 brood per year in the north and 2-3 broods in the south.[1]

Host plants[edit]

Here is a list of host plants used by the Southern Cloudywing:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rick Cech and Guy Tudor (2005). Butterflies of the East Coast. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ISBN 0-691-09055-6
  2. ^ a b c d Jim P. Brock and Kenn Kaufman (2003). Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin, New York, NY. ISBN 0-618-15312-8
  3. ^ a b Ernest M. Shull (1987). The Butterflies of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science. ISBN 0-253-31292-2
  4. ^ a b James A. Scott (1986). The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. ISBN 0-8047-2013-4
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