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The closest living relatives of tetrapods, lungfish often live in anoxic shallow swamps and ponds, which are likely to dry up in the dry season, so these fish have evolved as obligate air breathers and can endure long periods out of water, holed up in burrows in the dried mud. To breathe air, the lungfish’s air bladder has evolved into a “lung,” a highly vascularized pocket of the digestive tract, in which gulped air can be stored to oxygenate the blood that runs through this organ. Their heart is also adapted to pumping oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood in separate streams to different parts of the body. The lungfish ear is highly developed, much like the tetrapod ear, and adapted to hearing through air rather than water. Elongate and eel-like in appearance, African lungfish have soft scales and their pelvic fins are modified into long threadlike appendages which they can use to crawl along muddy surfaces. They are carnivorous, eating invertebrates, fish and amphibians. Lungfish are eaten by native Africans, although they have a strong taste, and are thus not widely enjoyed. Because of increased fishing pressure and conversion of breeding habitats to agriculture, populations of marbled lungfish are on the decline in Lake Victoria and Lake Nabugabo.
(Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. 2011; Entsua-Mensah et al. 2010; Goudswaard et al. 2001; Wikipedia 2011a; Wikipedia 2011b)