The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Artedi, Ichth., (3) ed. 2, 584.
  • Bailly, N. (2015). Sphyraena Artedi, 1793. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2015) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Eschmeyer, William N. 1990. Genera of Recent Fishes. iii + 697
  • Jenkins, Oliver P. 1901. Descriptions of Fifteen New Species of Fishes from the Hawaiian Islands. Washington, DC : Government Printing Office. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission, vol. 19, 1899; Fig.2
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Seale, Alvin. 1906. Fishes of the South Pacific. Honolulu, HI : Bishop Museum Press. Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History : v.4, no.1, 1906; Fig. 4
  • Shiino, Sueo M. 1976. List of Common Names of Fishes of the World, Those Prevailing among English-speaking Nations. Science Report of Shima Marineland, no. 4. 262
  • Tributsch, H. 1984. How life learned to live. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 218 p.
  • W. E. Odum and E. J. Heald, The detritus-based food web of an estuarine mangrove community, In Estuarine Research, Vol. 1, Chemistry, Biology and the Estuarine System, Academic Press, New York, pp. 265-286, from p. 281 (1975).
  • Waite, Edgar R. 1921. Illustrated Catalogue of the Fishes of South Australia. Adelaide, Australia : G.Hassell & Son; Fig.128


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!