The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • E. Mey, “Die Dreizehenmöwe, Rissa tridactyla (L.), in Thüringen”, Thüringer Ornithologischer Rundbrief, vol. 21, pp. 3 - 8, 1973.
  • E. Mey, “Dreizehenmöwe – Rissa tridactyla (L., 1758)”, in Die Vogelwelt Thüringens, Dv. Knorre, R. Grün, R. Günther, and K. Schmidt Jena: Bezirke Erfurt, Gera, Suhl., 1986, p. 187.
  • M. S. W. Bradstreet and W. E. Cross, Trophic relationships at High Arctic ice edges, Arctic 3(1)5:1-12, from p. 9 (1982).
  • V. S. Summerhayes and C. S. Elton, Contributions to the ecology of Spitsbergen and Bear Island, J. Ecol. 11:214-286, from p. 232 (1923).
  • WoRMS (2014). Rissa Stephens, 1826. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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