The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bailly, N. (2015). Hippocampus Rafinesque, 1810. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2015) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Car. n. Gen., 18.
  • Couch, Jonathan. 1877. History of the Fishes of the British Isles. London, England : George Bell & Sons; Vol.4 Plate 241/4
  • Eschmeyer, William N. 1990. Genera of Recent Fishes. iii + 697
  • Eschmeyer, William N., ed. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, no. 1, vol 1-3. 2905
  • FOSTER, S. J., & VINCENT A. C. J. (2004). Life history and ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. Journal of Fish Biology. 65, 1–61.
  • Fibuier, Louis. 1868. Ocean World : Being a Descriptive History of the Sea and its Living Inhabitants. New York : D. Appleton & Co.; Fig. 361
  • Hamilton, Robert. 1866. British Fishes, Part II. London, England : Chatto and Windus. Naturalist's Library, vol. 37; Facing page 278
  • Holder, Charles Frederick. 1892. Along the Florida Reef. New York City, NY : D. Appleton and Company; Page 162
  • International Workshop on CITES Implementation for Seahorse Conservation and Trade, 2004. Retrieved March 15, 2012 from
  • Lourie, Sara A., Amanda C. J. Vincent, and Heather J. Hall. 1999. Seahorses. An identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. x + 214
  • Lourie, Sara A., Sarah J. Foster, Ernest W. T. Cooper, and Amanda C. J. Vincent. 2004. A Guide to the Identification of Seahorses. ii + 114
  • McIntosh, William Carmichael. 1921. Resources of the Sea : as Shown in the Scientific Experiments to Test the Effects of Trawling and of the Closure of Certain Areas Off the Scottish Shores. Cambridge, England : University Press; Fig.9
  • Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
  • Rafinesque, C.S. (1810). Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della sicilia, con varie osservazioni sopra i medisimi. Per le stampe di Sanfilippo: Palermo, Italy. 105, 20 fold. Pl pp.
  • Shiino, Sueo M. 1976. List of Common Names of Fishes of the World, Those Prevailing among English-speaking Nations. Science Report of Shima Marineland, no. 4. 262
  • Sonrel, Leon. 1872. Bottom of the Sea. New York City, NY : Scribner, Armstrong & Co.; Fig. 23
  • Turner, P.S. 2005. Struggling to Save the Seahorse. National Wildlife Federation news. Retrieved March 15, 2012 from
  • US Fish and Wildlife Service Office of Law Enforcement, 2004. Changes Affecting Import and Export of Seahorses and Other Tropical Fish. Retrieved March 15, 2012 from
  • Waite, Edgar R. 1921. Illustrated Catalogue of the Fishes of South Australia. Adelaide, Australia : G.Hassell & Son; Fig.93
  • Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 23 February, 2012. “Seahorse”. Retrieved March 15, 2012 from>">">>


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