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Peckoltia ZBK currently has 13 species that are found in the Amazon and Orinoco River drainages and in the coastal drainages of the Guyanas (Armbruster, 2003). Peckoltia braueri and P. sabaji ZBK are the only species of Peckoltia ZBK that have been described from around the Guyana Shield; however, there are many undescribed species (pers. obs.).
Of the species of Peckoltia ZBK found in Guyana, one was described as Hemiancistrus braueri ZBK by Eigenmann (1912) based on specimens collected by Richard Schomburgk and originally reported by Müller and Troschel (1849), one was described as Peckoltia sabaji ZBK (Armbruster 2003), and the third represents an undescribed species that is described herein as P. cavatica ZBK . Previously, P. braueri was known only from the type that was collected in the Takutu River (Negro River drainage), and that specimen had already lost its color by the time it was described by Eigenmann (1912). Peckoltia braueri has also recently been considered a species of Hemiancistrus ZBK (Cardoso and Lucinda, 2003); however, the color pattern of the fish is more consistent with the species of Peckoltia ZBK . Currently, Peckoltia ZBK and Hemiancistrus ZBK are impossible to distinguish and are likely closely related to one another (Armbruster, 2004). In general, species with dorsal saddles and bands in the fins are referred to Peckoltia ZBK and those with spots or uniform coloration are referred to Hemiancistrus ZBK ; however, this is not a very adequate situation, and the distinction between Peckoltia ZBK and Hemiancistrus ZBK requires much further work. Peckoltia braueri is certainly much more similar to P. vittata (Steindachner) (the type of Peckoltia ZBK ) than to H. medians (Kner) (the type of Hemiancistrus ZBK ). We collected P. cavatica ZBK from two localities around the Macushi village of Massara, and P. braueri in three localities around Lethem. In this manuscript, we redescribe P. braueri and describe P. cavatica ZBK new species .