Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 5488 specimens in 83 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3936 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 50000
  Temperature range (°C): 6.367 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.006 - 36.879
  Salinity (PPS): 32.019 - 40.307
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.616 - 5.165
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.034 - 2.717
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 87.145

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 50000

Temperature range (°C): 6.367 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.006 - 36.879

Salinity (PPS): 32.019 - 40.307

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.616 - 5.165

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.034 - 2.717

Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 87.145
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:826Public Records:324
Specimens with Sequences:683Public Species:48
Specimens with Barcodes:673Public BINs:40
Species:65         
Species With Barcodes:65         
          
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Chaetodon

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Wikipedia

Chaetodon

Chaetodon is a tropical fish genus in the family Chaetodontidae. Like their relatives, they are known as "butterflyfish". This genus is by far the largest among the Chaetodontidae, with about 90 living species included here,[1] though most might warrant recognition as distinct genera.

Several subgenera have been proposed for splitting out of this massive group. By and by, it is becoming clear how the genus might be split up, with a range[2] of DNA sequence data in large parts agreeing with S.D. Blum's landmark 1988 phylogenetic assessment of osteology.[3]

Basically, a core group around the type species Chaetodon capistratus would remain in Chaetodon, while maybe 4 clades would be split off. These could use the names Lepidochaetodon, Megaprotodon and Rabdophorus, and there is one unnamed group containing the Three-banded Butterflyfish (C. robustus) and its relatives. But the monophyly of the Lepidochaetodon group is not fully established; it is both unclear whether Rhombochaetodon is a lineage distinct from Exornator, and whether Lepidochaetodon is indeed closer to these than to any other Chaetodon, particularly to some lineages otherwise placed in Megaprotodon.[2]

Prognathodes, for some time contained in Chaetodon, is worthy of recognition as full genus in any case. Genus status of Parachaetodon and Roa is possible, but not well-studied yet.

The oldest fossils that are usually assigned to Chaetodon date from the late Oligocene, about 25 million years ago. But since it is not easy to distinguish this genus from close relatives, it may be that the Oligocene fossils are actually of other Chaetodontidae. The fossil record of this family is scant indeed, only Chelmon (or some similar genus like Chelmonops or Coradion) being known from Miocene remains. As even crude molecular clocks suggest that the ancestors of the Chaetodon and the Chelmops lineage diverged in the Late Eocene already, nothing more can be said without new fossils being discovered.[4]

Historically, more distantly related fish were placed in Chaetodon too, for resembling them in details – e.g. the common scat Scatophagus argus, which has a similar shape and size, as well as armored larvae like the Chaetodontidae – or simply because they are colorful, smallish, and unusually-looking – e.g. the quite unrelated paradise fish, as C. chinensis.

Species[edit]

There are currently 88 recognized species in this genus:[5]

Chaetodon sensu stricto[edit]

C. robustus group[edit]

Lepidochaetodon group[edit]

Subgenus Exornator (including Burgessius, Heterochaetodon and possibly Rhombochaetodon; tentatively placed here)

Subgenus Lepidochaetodon (including Tifia)

Subgenus Rhombochaetodon (including Roaops, might belong in Exornator; tentatively placed here)

Megaprotodon group[edit]

Subgenus "Citharoedus" (tentatively placed here)

Subgenus Corallochaetodon (tentatively placed here)

Subgenus Discochaetodon

Subgenus Gonochaetodon (tentatively placed here)

Subgenus Megaprotodon

Subgenus Tetrachaetodon

Rabdophorus group[edit]

Including Aspilurochaetodon, Chaetodontops

Incertae sedis[edit]

Most are probably either Chaetodon sensu stricto or C. robustus group.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ FishBase (2006)
  2. ^ a b Fessler & Westneat (2007), Hsu et al. (2007)
  3. ^ Blum (1988)
  4. ^ Sepkoski (2002), Fessler & Westneat (2007)
  5. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Chaetodon in FishBase. February 2013 version.

References[edit]

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