Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 11359 specimens in 23 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 7460 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 267
  Temperature range (°C): 17.010 - 28.365
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.024 - 10.763
  Salinity (PPS): 32.409 - 37.169
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.750 - 5.178
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 1.098
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 12.886

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 267

Temperature range (°C): 17.010 - 28.365

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.024 - 10.763

Salinity (PPS): 32.409 - 37.169

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.750 - 5.178

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 1.098

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 12.886
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:513Public Records:278
Specimens with Sequences:479Public Species:27
Specimens with Barcodes:436Public BINs:23
Species:28         
Species With Barcodes:28         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Haemulon

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Wikipedia

Haemulon

Haemulon is a genus of fish in the grunt family known as the scaled-fin grunts. Most are found in the western Atlantic Ocean, with a few species known from the eastern Pacific Ocean.[1] This genus is considered to be one of the most important fish groups of the coral reefs of Brazil due to its commercial value and crucial ecological role.[2]

Species[edit]

The 22 currently recognized species in this genus are:[3]

Description[edit]

Fish of this genus are oblong in shape and have large mouths.[4] They have scales over the rays of their second dorsal and anal fins, and the second anal spine is larger than the third. The inside of the mouth is usually bright red.[1] Juveniles of the genus look similar to each other, but the variation in the appearance of the adults is great.[5]

Diet[edit]

Some Haemulon species eat plankton in the open water, but most seek small prey on the seabed.[5] Fish of the grunt family are nocturnal feeders, venturing in schools from the cover of the reefs around sunset to find food. The schools disperse as individuals go hunting, and then reform as morning approaches and they prepare to return to the reef.[6]

Behaviour[edit]

Haemulon species are common members of shallow reef fish communities in their range. Their schools can have hundreds[7] or thousands[2] of fish, including adults and juveniles. Schools can be made up of several different Haemulon species;[7] for example, H. squamipinna and H. aurolineatum may associate with each other.[1][7] Haemulon spp. have also been observed in schools with grunts of other genera, such as Anisotremus virginicus, and fish of different families, such as the snapper Lutjanus alexandrei, the goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus, and the jack Carangoides bartholomaei.[7] Other fish tend to join large Haemulon schools for protection. Sometimes they join a school simply for the protection offered by a large mass of fish, but some species engage in protective mimicry in a school. Unrelated fish that resemble Haemulon in color, size, and shape join the school to hide from predators, even mimicking the swimming style, movements, and postures of the Haemulon. Fish that do this include the goatfish Mulloidichthys martinicus, the parrotfish Sparisoma axillare, and the herring Harengula clupeola.[7] M. martinicus, in particular, stays with groups of its own species while sheltering in the reefs, but when it enters the open water column and becomes visible to predators, it tends to join schools of Haemulon chrysargyreum, which it closely resembles. It assumes the posture of the grunts and blends into the group.[8]

Despite their general preference for close association with other fish, some Haemulon spp. can be territorial and display aggressive behaviors. Larger individuals are more likely to act aggressively, and this behavior is more common at certain times of the day, such as early morning.[2]

Like other members of their family, these fish produce a grunting sound by grinding their pharyngeal teeth, the behavior which inspired their common name.[5]

The spawning behavior of these fish has not been observed.[5]

Haemulon flavolineatum

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Rocha, L. A. and I. L. Rosa. (1999). New species of Haemulon (Teleostei: Haemulidae) from the northeastern Brazilian coast. Copeia (1999)2 447-52.
  2. ^ a b c Pereira, P. H. C. and B. P. Ferreira. (2012). Agonistic behaviour among Haemulon spp. (Actinopterygii: Haemulidae) and other coral reef fishes in northeastern Brazil. Cybium 36(2) 361-67.
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of XXXXX in FishBase. August 2013 version.
  4. ^ Hong, S. L. (1977). Review of eastern Pacific Haemulon with notes on juvenile pigmentation. Copeia 1977(3) 493-501.
  5. ^ a b c d Rocha, L. A., et al. (2008). Historical biogeography and speciation in the reef fish genus Haemulon (Teleostei: Haemulidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48 918-28.
  6. ^ Burke, N. C. (1995). Nocturnal foraging habitats of French and bluestriped grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum and H. sciurus, at Tobacco Caye, Belize. Environmental Biology of Fishes 42 365-74.
  7. ^ a b c d e Pereira, P. H. C., et al. (2011). Mixed-species schooling behavior and protective mimicry involving coral reef fish from the genus Haemulon (Haemulidae). Neotropical Ichthyology 9(4) 741-46.
  8. ^ Krajewski, J. P., et al. (2004). The association of the goatfish Mulloidichthys martinicus with the grunt Haemulon chrysargyreum: An example of protective mimicry. Biota Neotropica 4(2) 1-4.
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