The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1995. Paper Wasps (Polistes species). Organic Gardening, 42: 22.
  • Evans, H. 1963. Wasp Farm. Ithaca: Cornel University Press.
  • Gamboa, G., T. Grudzien, K. Espelie, E. Bura. 1996. Kin recognition pheromones in social wasps: combining chemical and behavioral evidence. Animal Behavior, 51: 625-629.
  • Grzimek, B. 1972. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • Gusenleitner J. (2015). ZOBODAT: Zoological-Botanical Database (Vespoidea) (version 4.0, Oct 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Judd, T. 2000. Division of labour in colony defence against vertebrate predators by the social wasp *Polistes fuscatus*. Animal Behavior, 60: 55.
  • Lyon, W., G. Wegner. 2001. "Paper Wasps and Hornets" (On-line). Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheets. Accessed 10/11/01 at
  • Milne, L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. New York: Knopf.
  • Naug, D., R. Gadagkar. 1998. The role of age in temporal polyethism in a primitively eusocial wasp. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 42: 37-47.
  • Turillazzi, S., M. West-Eberhard. 1996. Natural History and Evolution of Paper-Wasps. New York: Oxford Science Publications.
  • Unknown, 2001. "Paper Wasps" (On-line). MSN Encarta Premium. Accessed October 11, 2001 at


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