Polistes fuscatus occurs in temperate North America, from British Columbia east to the Atlantic, and south to West Virginia.
Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )
- Evans, H. 1963. Wasp Farm. Ithaca: Cornel University Press.
- Milne, L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. New York: Knopf.
occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
The length of P. fuscatus ranges from 15 to 21 mm . These wasps are very slender and have a waist connecting the thorax and the abdomen. They are a dark reddish-brown color, and the body is segmented by yellow bands. Their pointed heads distinguish them from yellow jackets. In males, the tips of the antennae are strongly curved, and there is more yellow marking the front of the head.
Females of these wasps have a venomous sting.
Range length: 15 to 21 mm.
Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; venomous
Sexual Dimorphism: sexes shaped differently
Polistes fuscatus nests in woodlands and savannas. It is fairly common around human habitations, especially where exposed wood is present and can be used for nest material.
Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest
Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban ; agricultural
Adult P. fuscatus feed mainly on plant nectar. The species is considered insectivores because it kills caterpillars and other small insects in order to provide food for developing larvae. Foragers collect various prey insects to feed to the larvae. The wasp then malaxates, or softens the food and in doing so absorbs most of the liquid in the food. This solid portion is given to older larvae and the liquid is regurgitated to be fed to younger larvae.
Animal Foods: insects
Plant Foods: nectar
Foraging Behavior: stores or caches food
Primary Diet: omnivore
Wasps feed on the nectar of plants and in doing so, they transfer pollen from one plant to another, aiding in plant reproduction. They are thus essential to ensure that plants reproduce. To the extent that these wasps fall prey to other animals, they affect the survival and reproduction of those predators. Polistes fuscatus also affects species upon which it preys in order to feed larvae.
Ecosystem Impact: pollinates
Polistes fuscatus is eusocial but its social organization is not as rigorous as other eusocial organisms. Whereas in some other eusocial insects, guard polymorphs have developed that specialize in nest defense (e.g. soldier termites), paper wasps have only workers and queens. These two classes work together to fend off nest predators and parasites.
Two trends have been found in the study of anti-predator adaptions in P. fuscatus. The first is that the queen is the most aggressive defender of the nest and the second is that aggression in both workers and queens increases with the passage of time. These two adaptations reveal the incomplete eusocial nature of P. fuscatus. The queen is the most aggressive because she has a huge reproductive investment in the nest. The workers become more aggressive with time since their investment increases with time.
- Judd, T. 2000. Division of labour in colony defence against vertebrate predators by the social wasp *Polistes fuscatus*. Animal Behavior, 60: 55.
Life History and Behavior
As social wasps, P. fuscatus must have communication avenues for nest and hierarchy building and for defense. In order to establish dominance, a queen adopts a series of threatening postures that cause her underlings to subordinate themselves.
A chemical producing gland towards the posterior portion of the wasp produces a chemical that separates eggs laid by the queen from eggs laid by workers. The queen uses this chemical to decide which eggs to eat and which eggs to allow to grow.
Outsiders, even conspecifics, are not well-received in an existing nest and are quickly removed. As an outsider cannot be discerned visually or through tactile sensation, P. fuscatus relies on chemical cues. Pheromones are released by the wasps and the pheromones are specific to each nest. The specific chemicals are acquired upon birth by the wasps. It is extremely difficult for an individual to become accepted into a neighboring colony, unless it establishes a new colny of its own.
Communication Channels: visual ; chemical
Other Communication Modes: pheromones
Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical
- Gamboa, G., T. Grudzien, K. Espelie, E. Bura. 1996. Kin recognition pheromones in social wasps: combining chemical and behavioral evidence. Animal Behavior, 51: 625-629.
Polistes fuscatus queens lay fertilized eggs into individual cells within the nest. The larvae which subsequently hatch from these eggs are fed and protected by the queen and subordinate females until they are ready to pupate. The larvae are then covered with a silky covering. The first generation emerges from pupation as into smaller, infertile females. These are the true workers of the colony. Later in the life of the nest, males and fertile female offspring are produced. The fertile female offspring are the next generation of queens. They survive the winter and start new nests the following year.
Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis
- Lyon, W., G. Wegner. 2001. "Paper Wasps and Hornets" (On-line). Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheets. Accessed 10/11/01 at http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2077.html.
The lifespan of P. fuscatus is approximately one year, or the time it takes a queen to develop and to mate. Larvae from that are laid during the summer are well fed because of abundant food, and are capable of becoming queens. These eggs hatch before fall and the resulting offspring hibernate during fall and winter. The new queens emerge in the spring to begin nests and lay eggs. By fall, after laying eggs that will develop into new queens, these queens die. All accompanying workers and males die with the queen.
Status: wild: 1 years.
- Unknown, 2001. "Paper Wasps" (On-line). MSN Encarta Premium. Accessed October 11, 2001 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761582488/Paper_Wasp.html#p7.
Males and females mate at the end of the summer, after the nest has been abandoned. Venom from females acts as an attractant for males, drawing them from at least 2 meters away.
Mating System: cooperative breeder ; eusocial
The mating season for P. fuscatus is during the spring and summer. Fertile females are hatched towards the end of summer and they mate with males. With the onset of winter, the old queen, workers, and males die and the young females enter hibernation. They emerge in spring to build nests and produce offspring.
Breeding season: Breeding occus in spring and summer.
Key Reproductive Features: semelparous ; seasonal breeding ; sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous
Parental Investment: female parental care
- Evans, H. 1963. Wasp Farm. Ithaca: Cornel University Press.
- Turillazzi, S., M. West-Eberhard. 1996. Natural History and Evolution of Paper-Wasps. New York: Oxford Science Publications.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Polistes fuscatus
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Polistes fuscatus
Public Records: 53
Specimens with Barcodes: 110
Species With Barcodes: 1
Polistes fuscatus is one of the most common wasps in North America and the one that is very well studied due to its steady population sizes, therefore there is no cause to worry about the status of this species.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
State of Michigan List: no special status
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Due to the proximity of the wasps to humans and their habitation in houses and other buildings, they can prove hazardous. They can inflict stings on domestic animals in places such as barns where they may have nests. Humans are also at risk of aggravating these insects and suffering from stings.
Negative Impacts: injures humans (bites or stings); household pest
Polistes fuscatus feeds on various garden insects. The wasps feed on caterpillars and these insects also serve as major sources of food for the eggs. Organic gardeners benefit greatly from these wasps because they eliminate the need for pesticides.
Positive Impacts: controls pest population
- 1995. Paper Wasps (Polistes species). Organic Gardening, 42: 22.
Polistes fuscatus, whose common name is the golden or northern paper wasp, is widely found throughout southern Canada, the United States, and Central America. It often nests around human development. However, it greatly prefers areas in which wood is readily available for use as nest material, therefore they are also found near and in woodlands and savannas. The Polistes fuscatus is a social wasp that is part of a complex society based around a single dominant queen along with other cofoundresses and a dominance hierarchy.
- 1 Taxonomy and phylogeny
- 2 Description
- 3 Distribution and Habitat
- 4 Life Cycle
- 5 Colony Cycle
- 6 Behavior
- 7 Sexual Behavior
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Taxonomy and phylogeny
Polistes fuscatus are a part of the order Hymenoptera, the suborder Apocrita, the family of Vespidae, and the subfamily Polistinae, the second largest subfamily within Vespidae, of which all are social wasps. Polistinae comprises four tribes, including Polistini, Epiponini, Mischocyttarini, and Ropalidiini. It is characterized by two major behaviors: colony founding and reproductive dominance. Colony founding can be either independent or swarm founding. Independent founding consists of the founding of small, simple nests that are constructed without a paper envelope by a single or few queens with one or several inseminated egg-layers and no workers. Swarm founding includes the construction of large swarms and are founded by multiple queens with many workers. Polistes fuscatus is part of the Polistini tribe and in the genus Polistes. Polistes is one of the five independent-founding groups. A study in which bootstrap analysis was conducted indicated that Polistes fuscatus is part of the new world subgenera: Fuscopolistes. In addition to Polistes fuscatus, within fuscopolistes are Polistes bellicosus, Polistes apaches, Polistes aurifer, Polistes Carolina, Polistes dorsalis, and Polistes metricus, all of which are the closest relatives to Polistes fuscatus.
The physical characteristics of the Polistes fuscatus are highly dependent on the geographic location of its habitat. Throughout the United States, there are three color pattern trends that represent different regions throughout the country. The male Polistes fuscatus is identified by its darkened apical flagellomeres in addition to its darkened dorsal surface of the apical flagellomeres that is common to other species of wasps. Northern females on the other hand are easily identified by the blackening of their entire bodies which may or may not have markings of other colors. Many southern Polistes fuscatus, however, have additional markings and may resemble wasps of other species.
The facial and abdominal markings of Polistes fuscatus are highly variable. They include a variety of different patterns, such as small dots, long stripes, clypeus blotches, yellow abdominal dots, upper clypeus stripes, and combinations of both clypeus edge and tip colorations. Furthermore, some wasps have these facial and abdominal patterns in brown and black instead of yellow. These markings colors, however, are often influenced by the geographic location of the wasp.
The length of the Polistes fuscatus often ranges between 15 to 21 mm. The fore wing length of the Polistes fuscatus ranges between 11.5 – 17.0 mm; in general, the fore wing of males is above 13.0 mm, whereas females have a fore wing length above 11.0. Both males and females have rather slender bodies and have a waist that connects the thorax to the abdomen. The female has a venomous sting. With length and coloration also varies throughout the seasonal year of when the wasps emerge.
Distribution and Habitat
Polistes fuscatus distribution ranges from southern Canada to the United States to Central America. The most northern range is Chilcotin, British Columbia, and reaches as far south as Honduras. Although Polistes fuscatus prefer wooded areas for the readily available resources to build the nest, it also is often seen in areas in which humans inhabit. Nests are produced through using wood provided from their habitat masticated with fluid produced by Polistes fuscatus’s mouth to create a pulp like substance.
However, another eusocial wasp species, namely Polistes dominula, has been recognized as a threat for the Polistes fuscatus because P. dominula have been displacing P. fuscatus at many of the formerly P. fuscatus-dominated areas. It was studied that Polistes dominulawas likely to be replacingPolistes fuscatusthrough indirect or exploitative competition, which was in consistent with the finding that Polistes dominula was significantly more productive than Polistes fuscatus.
The life cycle lasts approximately one year. In early spring the new queen emerging from hibernation starts a new colony, building an umbrella-shaped nest made of a papery material and suspended from a single stalk. The queen lays eggs into individual cells. The first generation is composed of infertile female workers. In the next generation there are multiple queens with communal nests, but the other fertile females accept the dominance of a single female and raise offspring cooperatively. Later in summer, the next year's queens are produced, and they mate with males. The newly mated queens hibernate in winter, while old founding queens, workers (sterile females) and males die.
Colony stages can be separated into three stages based on nest content: pre-emergence (nest initiation to first adult), emergence-enlargement (emergence of first adult to beginning brood decline), and post-enlargement (no further new cell addition). The total number of wasps in the colony can be well over 200.
Prior to nest initiation, females come together post hibernation in clusters before separating and starting their own colonies in early spring. During this time, the wasps are particularly aggressive when other wasps encroach on their territory; this aggression may be associated with the development of their ovaries. Nests are normally initiated by a single foundress during early May; however, if another foundress joins, the nest may be founded by several foundresses. In the early beginning of the founding of the nest, females exhibit much aggression in order to assert dominance to determine the hierarchical ranking; dominant females with exhibit oophagy and become queens.
In the beginning of the pre-emergence stage, there are very few eggs in the nest. The mean of the pre-emergence stage is approximately 48 days long; it includes the egg, larval and pupal stages and may also be affected by nutrition and temperature. The first eggs that are laid are all female workers that can care for future reproductive females. After the first eggs are laid, both male and female eggs are laid until mid-September; the laying of male eggs has been shown to be correlated with increased oviposition rate of the dominant females. Post the birth of both male and female eggs, only female adults emerge, though eggs laid post the end of July no longer emerge and reach adulthood. The life cycle of the wasp is approximately one year. The queen disappears at the end of July, which is when the both the number of laid eggs and the rate at which the growth of the nest declines, though other reproductive females may continue to lay eggs. The brood itself begins to decline towards late August, thus leading to the conclusion that brood declination occurs when the there is no longer the occurrence of reproduction. After reaching the post-enlargement behavior, brood destruction occurs in which wasps begin exhibiting abortive behavior by either throwing larva out or feeding them to existing nest mates; if not aborted, these larvae eventually emerge as abnormal adults. Post this destruction, the adult wasps abandon the nests. Prior to hibernation, the wasps cluster together in aggregations to mate and then begin hibernation till the next season.
Polistes fuscatus is an eusocial organism that has a hierarchical social system usually centered around one queen. Although this species is classified as eusocial, its social organization is not as evolved as other eusocial organisms. Queen initiated interactions can be placed into two broad categories: (1) solicitations and (2) non-solicitations. Solicitations include “receipt of water, nectar, pulp, or prey from returned Foragers,” while non-solicitations include, “antennation, lunging/bumping, chasing, grappling, and biting” (156). Queens spend substantially less time off of the nest compared to workers. Workers vary significantly in time spent off the nest, which correlates with foraging efforts. More dominant workers spend less time off of the nest compared with less dominant workers. Other eusocial insects, such as soldier termites, have developed guard polymorphs that specialize in nest defense. Paper wasps on the other hand, have only workers and queens who defend the nest together. The queen is the most aggressive defender of the nest since she has the most reproductive investment. In some cases, Polistes fuscatus has been shown to share nests with a closely related species, Polistes metricus.
Polistes fuscatus have a linear dominance hierarchy that revolves around the fertility of each individual wasp; those who are more dominant within the nest generally have the larger or more developed ovaries. The hierarchy is first formed in the pre-emergence period between foundresses in which they fight aggressively to establish dominance until the hierarchy is established and only later formed among the workers of the colony such that they are integrated into the hierarchy. When the queen is removed, the second highest ranking female then takes the queen place in being the primary egg layer.
The posture of wasps is very telling of which is dominant or subordinate. The dominant wasp generally sits higher than the subordinate, whereas the subordinates have a lower stance. For wasps that are of equal rank, it is not uncommon for them to continuously try to rise higher and begin to aggressively fight each other until they fall due to losing their foothold. This is often called the falling fight, though it is more common for one wasp to act as a subordinate.
Dominance ranking may also affect the location females may be at within the nest and how far away wasps are spaced. In Polistes fuscatus, those who are higher on the dominance ranking will make continuous darts at other lower ranking wasps such that other wasps will not closely sit near the higher ranking wasp.
Members of a colony are able to recognize non-resident wasps by how they approach the nest and by their dominance behavior. Members of the colony will approach the nest in a swift and purposeful fashion, whereas wasps that are not part of the colony will hover by the nest and not exhibit a specific direction. Oftentimes, they will hover by the nest without landing. If spotted, members of the colony will begin to act aggressively and alarm others of the possible intruder. It has been indicated that non-resident wasps are often chased out of the nest within the first five minutes of entering a nest.
On occasion, however, resident wasps may mistake other resident wasps as non-resident wasps. This occurs when the mistaken wasp has just come back from foraging and is too full to obtain the velocity necessary to fly towards the nest as if it were a resident of the nest. Sometimes, in order to obtain the speed necessary, the wasp will attempt to approach the nest several times. Dominance relations also allow for members to recognize nest mates as each wasp is of a particular rank; when a non-resident arrives and has no dominance rank, it is conceived as being unfamiliar. Wasps that are not part of the colony are only accepted without aggression when there is not yet a dominance hierarchy or conflict.
Individual recognition is highly important in the formation of behavioral interactions between members of different castes within a population of Polistes fuscatus. The ability to recognize individuals is vital for the existence of a linear dominance hierarchy, in which is a determinant for many aspects of behavior of the paper wasp, including the amount of food and work an individual wasp would be able to have or need to accomplish, the amount of aggression one may receive, and the amount of children a specific wasp may produce. The ability to recognize individuals also helps dictate how one wasp may treat another, whether it be to hold a dominant role or to act submissively within an interaction.
Much evidence has indicated that Polistes fuscatus have the capability to not only recognize where wasps of their population may fall in the hierarchy but may also be able to recognize individual nest-mates through specific facial and abdominal markings. One study indicated that if the facial and abdominal markings of a wasp were to be changed through painting with different color paints, mainly black or yellow, when the wasp was reintroduced into the nest, it would receive much aggression until it was reaccepted back into the colony (i.e. when the nest-mates felt familiar with that wasp). The study was able to indicate that recognition was specific to the individual given that there was no relationship between specific markings and dominance rank, rather markings were purely used for individual recognition. Furthermore, previous research by Bura and Gamboa indicated that wasps use chemical cues to identify nest-mates and wasps that are foreign to the nest would be immediately chased away within the first five minutes. That the reintroduced wasps were not chased away is a strong indication that facial and abdominal patterns are not used for net-mate recognition but is only used for individual recognition.
The ability to recognize individuals may not only be useful for behavioral interaction, but may also be used to reduce aggressive interaction between individuals of different dominance ranks, as well as to help foundresses determine and regulate the amount of resources each individual within the nest receives.
A greater part in the division of labor in colony defense is given to the queen of the colony. Research by Fishwild and Gamboa have indicated that queens come into contact and interact with non-resident wasps and returning nest-mates more compared to other resident wasps and are the first to come into contact with the wasp intruders at a much higher rate. Although this finding could be attributed to the queen’s location preference of being at the face of the nest, it was found that even normalizing for the preferred location, queens still encountered non nest mates at a higher rate than expected. In addition, queen wasps are much less tolerant of non-resident and returning nest mates compared to non-queen nest mates; however, both the queen and the colony members become less tolerant of non-resident wasps later on during the colony cycle.
It is hypothesized that queens may be less tolerant of intruders compared to other colony members due the consequences of accepting non nest mates into the colony. Oftentimes, female intruders that join the colony will attempt to evict the previous queen and usurp the position. Whereas this result is harmful for the queen, other members of the nest are not negatively impacted; they would simply remain in the nest and serve the new queen. Therefore, much of the defense of the colony is left up to the queen.
Colony Defense Against Vertebrate Predators
Polistes fuscatus invest much in their nests. Nests provide locations that members of the colony can return to and act as a central location that can allow for more efficient work in reproduction and foraging behavior. Although nests can provide many benefits, it also has the disadvantage of concentrating all investment in one area; this concentration allows for vertebrate predators to have the ability to destroy an entire nest and therefore destroy all investment. Vertebrate predators of Polistes fuscatus include the following organisms: foxes, rodents, and birds. Judd’s study on the defensive behavior of colonies of the paper wasp indicated that the behavior of wasps was highly dependent on reproductive investment. Prior to the emergence of many adult wasps, the wasps acted much more aggressively; however, when the nest no longer contained any brood and, therefore, not much investment, the wasps were much more likely to flee instead of act aggressively against the vertebrate predator.
Edwards indicated in his work that social wasps, “collect water, plant fibers, and carbohydrates, and hunt arthropod prey or scavenge animal proteins.”  Water is used for the following processes: nest cooling, construction, and metabolism; plant fibers are used for construction, and carbohydrates and protein is used as food and energy. Water is a vital resource for wasps given its many capabilities, and many wasps will go to a variety of places to obtain it, such as puddles and ponds, or even drinking fountains and faucets. Wasps are able to obtain water by imbibing it and regurgitating it once they return to the nest and are able to use it for construction by mixing it with the masticated plant fibers. These plant fibers are collected from dead wood. By mixing the plant fibers with water, wasps are able to create pulp which is then used to help the construction of nests.
Polistes fuscatus is considered to be a generalist prey forager but may also act as a specialist due to its habit of commonly returning to a specific location or to prey on the same species. They use the scavenged animal protein from both vertebrates and arthropods such as: caterpillars, flies, alate ants, termites, spiders, bees, and other wasps to help the development of their brood. Social wasps collect carbohydrates from nectar, sap, and fruits and may store them within the nest; some wasps may even steal or consume carbohydrates from other carbohydrate foraging or making arthropods. Although the foraging of social wasps is not as developed as some other arthropod species’ given its weakness in recruitment, the ability to communicate to nest mates of the location of a resource stronghold, it may be impactful to the greater ecosystem.
Polistes fuscatus eat arthropod prey, animal proteins, carbohydrates and protein. They will eat caterpillars, flies, ants, termites, spiders, bees, and other wasps. Carbohydrates may include nectar, sap, and fruits.
Differential Egg Eating
Egg laying by subordinate females and the oophagy of these eggs by dominate female wasps will occur until two weeks after the first female eggs emerge. Prior to these two weeks, egg layers will continuously eat other female wasps’ eggs approximately eleven minutes post being laid; however, no egg layers would ever eat their own eggs, indicating that they could recognize their own individual eggs. It can be conjectured that subordinate egg layers could not lay eggs as quickly as dominate egg layers given the dominate egg layers’ greater supply of ova from the subordinate egg layers indicating that oophagy and oviposition occur close together. Previous studies have also shown that subordinate egg layers’ may no longer lay eggs after associating with the higher ranking females after a certain time period; this is probably due to the necessity of expending energy during foraging and inability to invest as much into their own eggs.
Prior to hibernation, males and females will undergo mating; they will aggregate together in sunlit areas that are relatively higher in location. Males will sit out waiting to pursue females in order to mate. Once a female is spotted, unlike the usual passive male within the nest, the sexually responsive male will attempt to mount the female and begin performing abdominal stroking. Females will react aggressively in order to struggle free. If the female were to elude the male’s hold, the male wasp would return to its position to attempt to copulate again. While copulating, the male exhibits several movements, such as abdominal stroking, extrusion of genitals, grasping the female abdomen, rhythmic antennal vibrations, and grasping of the female antennae. Antennas and antennal movement are important for copulation. Some studies have indicated that females without antenna and females who do not depress their antennae cannot copulate. It has also been proposed that antennal movements help copulation through assisting the attachment of genitals. In addition, research by Post and Jeanne has shown that Polistes fuscatus females have no preference on mating with related or unrelated males.
The mating season for Polistes fuscatus is during the spring and summer, after the nest has been abandoned. Venom is released by females that contains a sex pheromone that induces copulatory behavior in males. The continual release of the venom causes males to try to copulate with females when they are unreceptive on the nest, thus interrupting the activities of the colony. After mating has occurred, the queen will lay an initial generation of infertile female workers. Later on in the life of the nest, male and fertile female offspring are produced.
The eggs capable of becoming queens are laid during the summer. Laying these eggs during the summer ensures that the larvae are well-fed due to the great environmental conditions and abundance of food. These eggs hatch before fall and the resulting offspring hibernate during fall and winter. The new queens or co-foundresses emerge in the spring to begin new nests and lay eggs. After laying eggs that will later develop into new queens, the old queens die along with all accompanying workers and males. As opposed to other eusocial insects such as vespid wasps, Polistes fuscatus have not been found to preferentially mate with their siblings or have sibling recognition mechanisms to aid in kin selection during reproduction. This is surprising since there are many advantages of inbreeding for haplo-diploid organisms.
According to Fisher’s theory of sex ratio selection, when competition for mates is population wide, parents will evolve to invest equally in both sexes. However in eusocial hierarchies, there is often conflict between the workers and the queen to promote their genes within the colony. The Queens favors a 1:1 sex ratio, but the workers favor female progeny because they share approximately 75% (r=0.75) of their genes with their sisters, provided that the queen only mated once. In Polistes fuscatus, the sex ratio is usually 1:1 for several reasons. First, males generally leave the nest to scout for mates soon after they reach adulthood, promoting population competition for mates. Second, the number of workers within a colony is relatively small (generally less than 40) making it less likely for a worker to confront the queen. Also, since colonies are annual and workers are reared by the queen’s subordinate foundresses, the queen can manipulate how much food they receive as larvae. Polistes fuscatus queens likely mate with multiple males so that the relatedness of workers is less than if they all shared the same father’s genes. Finally, in the second generation of the queens offspring, males are usually reared earlier than reproductive females. Thus when the workers have the opportunity to bias the sex ratio, there are few male larvae present. Additionally, the males have usually completed part of their development, giving them a higher reproductive value than new eggs. Thus the costs of destroying male larvae or replacing the male larvae with their own eggs is not worth the investment.
- Global species
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