Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

As presently understood, Antennarius is an assemblage of 24 species that fall conveniently into six species-groups. Like most other members of the family Antennariidae, fishes of the genus Antennarius spend the greater part of their lives squatting on the bottom in shallow water. These fishes are found worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters. Despite their sedentary nature, nearly all are voracious carnivores that sit quietly waiting for smaller fishes to pass by, at which time they enticingly wriggle their bait to attract the potential prey to their cavernous mouths. Their ovaries are tightly rolled like a double scroll, and eggs are released embedded in a single, large, buoyant gelatinous mass. Besides their value in the aquarium trade, they are of no significant economic interest.

Whereas monophyly for each of the six species-groups can be supported by one or more synapomorphies, Pietsch and Grobecker (1987) were unable to find any convincing synapomorphic features to establish monophyly for the genus. Thus, Antennarius is defined by a combination of what appear to be primitive character states.

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

Diagnosis

Antennarius is unique among antennariids in having the following combination of character states: skin covered with close-set, bifurcate dermal spinules, the length of spines of each spinule not more than twice the distance between tips of spines; illicium naked, without dermal spinules (except at extreme base, or confined to a narrow row of spinules along anterior margin, as in some species of A. ocellatus and A. nummifer groups); esca distinct; pectoral lobe broadly attached to side of body; caudal peduncle present or absent; all rays of caudal fin bifurcate; mesopterygoid present; pharyngobranchial I present; epural present; pseudobranch present; swimbladder present; dorsal rays 11–14; anal rays 6–10; pectoral rays 8–14.

Description

Escal morphology highly variable; illicium, when laid back onto head, usually fitting into a narrow, naked groove situated on either left or right side of second dorsal spine, the tip of illicium (esca) usually (but not in members of the A. pictus Group) coming to lie within a shallow depression (sometimes devoid of dermal spinules) between second and third dorsal spines, the esca capable of being covered and protected by second dorsal spine when spine is fully depressed (esca of members of the A. pictus Group perhaps protected in similar way by third dorsal spine); illicial length highly variable, ranging from considerably less than length of second dorsal spine to slightly more than twice its length, 5.0–33.8% SL; anterior end of pterygiophore of illicium terminating considerably posterior to, or extending anteriorly considerably beyond, symphysis of upper jaw; illicium and second dorsal spine relatively closely spaced on pterygiophore, the distance between bases of spines less than 5% SL; second dorsal spine straight to strongly curved posteriorly, free or connected to head by membrane, length 6.8–20.6% SL; third dorsal spine curved posteriorly, tapering slightly toward distal end, the full length connected to head by membrane, length 15.3–31.7% SL; eye not distinctly surrounded by separate clusters of dermal spinules, diameter 2.6–11.4% SL; usually distal 2/3 of maxilla naked and tucked beneath folds of skin, only extreme proximal end directly covered with spinulose skin (only distal tip, approximately 20–25% of length of maxilla, naked and tucked beneath folds of skin in members of the A. ocellatus Group); cutaneous appendages scattered over head, body, and fins, their development highly variable); wart-like patches of clustered dermal spinules absent; caudal peduncle usually present (but absent in some members of the A. nummifer Group); epibranchial I toothless (a few tiny remnants of tooth-plates present in some specimens); ceratobranchial I toothless; vertebrae 19 or 20, caudal centra 14 or 15; dorsal 11–14, all simple to all bifurcate; anal rays 6–10, all bifurcate; pectoral rays 8–14, all simple or all bifurcate; posteriormost ray of pelvic fin simple or bifurcate.

Color in preservation highly variable.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 671 specimens in 27 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 345 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 1097
  Temperature range (°C): 11.329 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 31.396
  Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 37.566
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.376 - 5.178
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.019 - 2.256
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.380 - 23.940

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 1097

Temperature range (°C): 11.329 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 31.396

Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 37.566

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.376 - 5.178

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.019 - 2.256

Silicate (umol/l): 0.380 - 23.940
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

View Antennarius Tree

The interrelationships of the six species-groups of Antennarius remain unknown and the species-groups are arranged in the key and the above cladogram solely on the basis of increasing relative specialization. Although each can be defined on the basis of one or more synapomorphies, no group of two or more species-groups possesses any known synapomorphy that does not also occur within other taxa of the genus.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 92
Specimens with Sequences: 76
Specimens with Barcodes: 75
Species: 13
Species With Barcodes: 12
Public Records: 30
Public Species: 9
Public BINs: 11
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Antennarius

Antennarius is a genus of 11[1] species of fish in the family Antennariidae. These fish spend most of their lives on the bottom in relatively shallow water between 20 and 100 m.[2] They can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters. They are ambush predators that wait for prey fish to pass by. They have "lures" which they move to attract the prey. They have little economic value other than a minor role in the aquarium trade.[3] Commerson's frogfish was the first species in this genus to be described, in 1798.

Species[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Species of Antennarius in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  2. ^ Pietsch & Grobecker. Frogfishes of the World. Stanford University Press. 1987. ISBN 9780804712637
  3. ^ http://eol.org/pages/23888/details


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