Overview

Comprehensive Description

[[ Astyanax Baird & Girard ZBK ]]

The genus Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 ZBK is diverse and widespread in freshwaters of South America, including at least 86 described species (Lima et al., 2003). Astyanax ZBK is likely a non-monophyletic genus (Weitzman & Malabarba, 1998), and the taxonomic status of some species is not completely clear.

During field expeditions to the rio da Várzea headwaters, a tributary of the upper portions of the rio Iguaçu in Paraná State, Brazil (Fig. 1), a new characid species was collected that presents the morphological features of the A. scabripinnis species complex . This non-monophyletic group, proposed by Moreira-Filho & Bertollo (1991) and subsequently discussed by Bertaco & Malabarba (2001) and Bertaco & Lucena (2006), possesses an elongated body (2.6 to 3.6 body depth in SL), a reduced number of branched anal-fin ray (13 to 21), a tall head region, and body deepest over middle of pectoral fins.

  • Vinícius Abilhoa, Luiz Fernando Duboc (2007): A new species of the freshwater fish genus Astyanax (Ostariophysi: Characidae) from the rio Iguacu basin, southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 1587, 43-52: 43-43, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B2CDDEA9-F47C-444F-BA47-DB7D7EC8D49A
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Astyanax ZBK sp.:

rio Iguacu basin: MNRJ 27964 , 15, Usina Hidreletrica de Foz do Areia , 4 Jul 1992 . São Paulo State : rio Paranapanema basin:MHNCI 9144 , 14 (2 c&s), road SP-261, stream tributary of rio Claro , approx. 22°47’S49°10’W , 9 Jul 2000 ; MNRJ 27970 , 31, small tributary of rio das Almas , approx. 24°08’S48°20’W , 7 Nov 2002 .

  • Vinícius Abilhoa, Luiz Fernando Duboc (2007): A new species of the freshwater fish genus Astyanax (Ostariophysi: Characidae) from the rio Iguacu basin, southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 1587, 43-52: 51-51, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B2CDDEA9-F47C-444F-BA47-DB7D7EC8D49A
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[[ Astyanax Baird & Girard ZBK ]]

The genus Astyanax Baird & Girard ZBK includes more than 100 nominal species (Garutti & Britski, 2000) distributed from southern United States to the Río Negro in Argentina ( Almirón et al., 1997). The genus is diagnosed by the presence of two series of teeth in the premaxilla, the first series with a variable number of teeth and the second series with equal or graduated teeth, usually five in number; crowns of premaxillary and mandibulary teeth usually ridged and denticulated; maxillary with few or no teeth; a complete lateral line; absence of a predorsal spine; and scales present on caudal-fin base. Several of these features are broadly distributed among characid fishes, however, and there are no phylogenetic studies that support monophyly of the genus.

Eight species of Astyanax ZBK are presently considered to occur in northwestern Argentina: A. fasciatus (Cuvier) ; A. eigenmanniorum (Cope) ; A. asuncionensis Gery ZBK ; A. abramis (Jenyns) ; A. lineatus (Perugia) ; A. latens Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta ZBK ; A. chico Casciotta& Almiron ZBK ; and A. tumbayaensis Miquelarena & Menni ZBK . Of these, only the last three have their type localities within this area. Astyanax fasciatus and A. eigenmanniorum were described from the Río San Francisco basin and Rio Grande do Sul, respectively, both in Brazil (Cuvier, 1819; Cope, 1894), with the latter species subsequently considered to be restricted to the Laguna dos Patos system (Malabarba, 1989). The remaining species were described from the Paraguay and Paraná basins. Several species with anal-fin ray and lateral line scale counts similar to A. eigenmanniorum have been described from Argentina in recent years (e. g. Azpelicueta & García , 2000; Azpelicueta et al., 2002a, 2002b; Almirón et al., 2002; Casciotta & Almirón , 2004; Casciotta et al., 2005; Miquelarena et al., 2005; Miquelarena & Menni, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to describe another species, also similar to A. eigenmanniorum , that is broadly distributed in the upper Río Bermejo basin of northwestern Argentina.

  • J. M. Mirande, G. Aguilera, M. D. L. M. Azpelicueta (2006): Astyanax endy (Characiformes: Characidae), a new fish species from the upper Río Bermejo basin, northwestern Argentina. Zootaxa 1286, 57-68: 58-58, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:89EB739D-FFDE-44FD-AD0F-9E51CC3392FD
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[[ Astyanax ZBK ]]

Artificial key for identification of Astyanax ZBK species from the Río Bermejo Basin

1a. A well defined humeral spot, rounded or horizontally oval; without maxillary teeth ...... 2

1b. A vertically elongated or diffuse humeral spot; with 1-4 maxillary teeth.. ................. 3

2a. Scales in lateral line 38 to 49 (usually 44-47); usually 28-30 branched anal-fin rays... ........................................................................................................................ A. abramis

2b. Scales in lateral line 33 to 40 (usually 34-36); usually 23-27 branched anal-fin rays... .............................................................................................................. A. asuncionensis ZBK

3a. Pigmentation pattern with longitudinal stripes in zigzag between rows of scales; scales with circuli on posterior field ........................................................................ A. lineatus

3b. Pigmentation pattern not as above; scales without circuli on posterior field.. ............. 4

4a. Branched anal-fin rays 25 to 30 (usually 28-29); pectoral fins reaching pelvic fins, and pelvic fins reaching anal fin in mature males and females; 26-27 gill rakers on first branchial arch, outer premaxillary teeth tricuspidate ........................................ A. latens ZBK

4b. Branched anal-fin rays 17 to 24; pelvic fins usually not reaching anal fin in mature females; 19-21 gill rakers on first branchial arch; usually with pentacuspidate teeth on outer premaxillary row .................................................................................................. 5

5a. Maxilla meeting mouth commissure at a straight angle, reaching a vertical through anterior border of eye; snout nearly straight; premaxillary and dentary teeth conspicuously expanded; 35-39 scales in lateral line ..................................................... A. chico ZBK

5b. Maxilla meeting mouth commissure at an oblique angle, reaching the vertical through anterior border of pupil; snout markedly convex; premaxillary and dentary teeth not conspicuously expanded; 33-36 scales in lateral line .................................................. 6

6a. Pigmentation pattern reticulated, formed by finely dotted scales, especially in its posterior border; densely concentrated dark superficial chromatophores on third infraorbital, opercle, premaxilla, maxilla and dentary; hooks on all fins excepting pectorals in mature males, including 16-19 anterior anal-fin rays ........................... A. tumbayaensis ZBK

6b. Without reticulated pigmentation pattern; superficial chromatophores scattered only on tip of dentary, and practically absent on third infraorbital, opercle, premaxilla, and maxilla; hooks only on pelvic fins and first 12 anal-fin rays of mature males ......... A. endy

  • J. M. Mirande, G. Aguilera, M. D. L. M. Azpelicueta (2006): Astyanax endy (Characiformes: Characidae), a new fish species from the upper Río Bermejo basin, northwestern Argentina. Zootaxa 1286, 57-68: 66-66, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:89EB739D-FFDE-44FD-AD0F-9E51CC3392FD
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[[ Astyanax ZBK ]]

In recent years, several species of Astyanax ZBK with similar counts of scales (33-36 on lateral line, 6-7/5-6 transverse) and anal fin-rays (iv-v + 21-23) to those of A. eigenmanniorum were described from eastern Brazil and northern Argentina (Almiron et al, 2002; Azpelicueta & Garcia, 2000; Azpelicueta et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2003; Casciotta et al., 2003; Casciotta & Almiron, 2004; Melo, 2001; Miquelarena et al., 2005; Miquelarena & Menni, 2005; Mirande et al., 2006). Several of these species, plus a few others, share the presence of gradually decreasing dentary teeth and variably expanded premaxillary teeth. This group of species is composed by A. giton Eigenmann ZBK and A. hastatus Myers ZBK from eastern Brazil, A. ojiara Azpelicueta & Garcia ZBK , A. troya Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almiron ZBK , A. leonidas Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almiron ZBK , A. pynandi Casciotta, Almiron, Bechara, Roux & Ruiz Diaz ZBK , A. ita Almiron, Azpelicueta & Casciotta ZBK from northeastern Argentina, and A. chico Casciotta & Almiron ZBK from northwestern Argentina. Additionally, all these species with the exceptions of A. hastatus ZBK and A. ita ZBK have hooks on anal, pelvic, pectoral, and/or dorsal, caudal fins.

The aim of this paper is to describe a new species from the endorheic RíoSalí basin, northwestern Argentina, which shares with the mentioned species the gradually decreasing dentary teeth and expanded premaxillary teeth.

The genus Astyanax ZBK is currently diagnosed by a combination of several broadly distributed features among Characidae, and there are no studies supporting neither its monophyly nor the monophyly of some species complex within the genus. We assign this new species to genus Astyanax ZBK following its traditional definition (Eigenmann, 1917), considering that the new taxon shares some presumably apomorphic character states with species also assigned to this genus.

  • Juan Marcos Mirande, Gastón Aguilera, María de las Mercedes Azpelicueta (2007): A new species of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) from the endorheic Río Salí basin, Tucumán, northwestern Argentina. Zootaxa 1646, 31-39: 31-32, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D83848ED-9E15-4C2C-A228-0288B2CAFBB9
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[[ Astyanax Baird & Girard ZBK ]]

The genus Astyanax Baird & Girard ZBK comprises approximately one-hundred valid species, occurring from southern United States of America to northern Patagonia in Argentina (Miquelarena & Menni, 2005). It is probable, however, that this genus, like several other genera included within the Characidae (e.g. Hyphessobrycon , Moenkhausia ZBK , Bryconamericus ZBK , Hemigrammus ), is not monophyletic (Weitzman & Fink, 1983; Zanata, 1997; Weitzman & Malabarba, 1998; Lima et al., 2003; Castro & Vari, 2004).

  • Lucila C. Protogino, Amalia M. Miquelarena, Hugo L. López (2006): A new species of Astyanax (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae), with breeding tubercles, from the Paraná and Uruguay river basins. Zootaxa 1297, 1-16: 2-2, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8B4411D9-087E-4182-81EF-23D764E0FE27
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

In recent years, several species of Astyanax with similar counts of scales (33-36 on lateral line, 6-7/5-6 transverse) and anal fin-rays (iv-v + 21-23) to those of A. eigenmanniorum were described from eastern Brazil and northern Argentina (Almiron et al, 2002; Azpelicueta & Garcia, 2000; Azpelicueta et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2003; Casciotta et al., 2003; Casciotta & Almiron, 2004; Melo, 2001; Miquelarena et al., 2005; Miquelarena & Menni, 2005; Mirande et al., 2006). Several of these species, plus a few others, share the presence of gradually decreasing dentary teeth and variably expanded premaxillary teeth. This group of species is composed by A. giton Eigenmann and A. hastatus Myers from eastern Brazil, A. ojiara Azpelicueta & Garcia , A. troya Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almiron , A. leonidas Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almiron , A. pynandi Casciotta, Almiron, Bechara, Roux & Ruiz Diaz , A. ita Almiron, Azpelicueta & Casciotta from northeastern Argentina, and A. chico Casciotta & Almiron from northwestern Argentina. Additionally, all these species with the exceptions of A. hastatus and A. ita have hooks on anal, pelvic, pectoral, and/or dorsal, caudal fins.

 

The aim of this paper is to describe a new species from the endorheic RíoSalí basin, northwestern Argentina, which shares with the mentioned species the gradually decreasing dentary teeth and expanded premaxillary teeth.

 

The genus Astyanax is currently diagnosed by a combination of several broadly distributed features among Characidae, and there are no studies supporting neither its monophyly nor the monophyly of some species complex within the genus. We assign this new species to genus Astyanax following its traditional definition (Eigenmann, 1917), considering that the new taxon shares some presumably apomorphic character states with species also assigned to this genus.

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Juan Marcos Mirande

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 107 specimens in 4 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.3 - 5
  Temperature range (°C): 18.742 - 28.184
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.064 - 1.406
  Salinity (PPS): 22.907 - 35.464
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.516 - 5.526
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.039 - 0.707
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.463 - 9.028

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.3 - 5

Temperature range (°C): 18.742 - 28.184

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.064 - 1.406

Salinity (PPS): 22.907 - 35.464

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.516 - 5.526

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.039 - 0.707

Silicate (umol/l): 3.463 - 9.028
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Astyanax cf. fasciatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 25
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Astyanax cf. pampa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Astyanax cf. pampa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Astyanax aff. fasciatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Astyanax aff. rutilus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Astyanax aff. Rutilus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 2374
Specimens with Sequences: 2092
Specimens with Barcodes: 2066
Species: 114
Species With Barcodes: 105
Public Records: 360
Public Species: 35
Public BINs: 35
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Astyanax (fish)

Astyanax is a genus of freshwater fish in the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. Some of these fish, like many of their relatives, are kept as aquarium pets and known collectively as tetras. With around 130 described species and new ones being described every few months, this genus is among the largest of the entire order; Hyphessobrycon also has more than 100 species, and which one is larger at any one time depends on whether more species have been recently described in one or the other.[1]

The blind cave fish, a form of A. mexicanus, is a famous member of this genus. A. jordani, a different but closely related blind fish, was formerly considered to form its own genus, Anoptichthys.

The type species is A. mexicanus, the Mexican tetra. The generic name comes from Astyanax, a character in Greek mythology, who was the son of Hector of Troy; in homage to this, several specific epithets also refer to the Iliad.[2]

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

This genus is more or less defined as in 1917 by Carl H. Eigenmann. The lack of comprehensive phylogenetic analyses dealing with this genus is hindering a thorough review, and the relationships remain as indeterminate as the monophyly is doubtful.[3] Although included in Astyanax by FishBase, phylogenetic evidence supports moving A. aurocaudatus back to the monotypic genus Carlastyanax.[4]

Species[edit]

The 145 currently recognized species in this genus are:

References[edit]

  1. ^ de Lucena (2003), Nelson (2006)
  2. ^ FishBase (2006)
  3. ^ de Lucena (2003)
  4. ^ Mirande; Jerep; and Vanegas-Ríos (2013). Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic Carlastyanax aurocaudatus (Eigenmann) with remarks on the phylogeny of the Stevardiinae (Teleostei: Characidae). Neotrop. ichthyol. 11(4).
  5. ^ a b c d e Garavello; Sampaio (2010). "Five new species of genus Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 from Rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae)". Brazilian Journal of Biology 70 (3): 847–865. doi:10.1590/s1519-69842010000400016. 
  6. ^ a b c Lucena, C.A.S.d., Castro, J.B. & Bertaco, V.A. (2013): Three new species of Astyanax from drainages of southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 11 (3): 537-552.
  7. ^ Bertaco, V.A. (2014): Astyanax douradilho, a new characid fish from the rio Tramandaí system, southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae). Zootaxa, 3794 (3): 492–500.
  8. ^ Ingenito, L.F.S. & Duboc, L.F. (2014): A new species of Astyanax (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae) from the upper rio Iguaçu basin, southern Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 12 (2): 281-290.
  9. ^ Oliveira, C.A.M., Abilhoa, V. & Pavanelli, C.S. (2013): Astyanax guaricana (Ostariophysi: Characidae), a new species from the rio Cubatão drainage, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 11 (2): 291-296.
  10. ^ Camelier, P. & Zanata, A.M. (2014): A new species of Astyanax Baird & Girard (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, with comments on bony hooks on all fins. Journal of Fish Biology, 84 (2): 475–490.
  11. ^ Lucena, C.A.S. de, Bertaco, V.A. & Berbigier, G. (2013): A new species of Astyanax from headwater streams of southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae). Zootaxa, 3700 (2): 226–236.
  12. ^ Tagliacollo, V.A.; R. Britzke, G.S.C. Silva, & R.C. Benine (2011). "Astyanax pirapuan: a new characid species from the upper Rio Paraguay system, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil (Characiformes, Characidae)". Zootaxa 2749: 40–46. 
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