Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 69 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.255 - 2.5
  Temperature range (°C): 18.742 - 18.742
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.406 - 1.406
  Salinity (PPS): 22.907 - 22.907
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.526 - 5.526
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.707 - 0.707
  Silicate (umol/l): 9.028 - 9.028

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.255 - 2.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:1758
Specimens with Sequences:1233
Specimens with Barcodes:1233
Species:59
Species With Barcodes:55
Public Records:49
Public Species:12
Public BINs:12
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Barcode data: Hyphessobrycon sp2

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hyphessobrycon sp2

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Hyphessobrycon sp1

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hyphessobrycon sp1

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hyphessobrycon sp. robertsi

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Hyphessobrycon

Hyphessobrycon is a genus of freshwater fish in the Characidae family of order Characiformes. The Hyphessobrycon species are among the fishes known as tetras. Almost all species of this genus are native to the Neotropic ecozone in South America; about half a dozen species are from Central America and a single species, H. compressus, is from southern Mexico.

Taxonomy[edit]

This large genus of characins includes over 100 species.[1] The systematics of Hyphessobrycon are still largely unresolved.[2] Six groups within this genus have been recognized based on color patterns alone.[1] With no phylogenetic analysis of this genus, species are placed into this genus as anatomically defined by Carl H. Eigenmann in 1917.[3] By this definition, Hyphessobrycon is identified by the presence of an adipose fin, incomplete lateral line, two tooth series in the premaxilla, with the teeth of the external series continuous in a single series, teeth not strictly conical, preventral scales arranged in more than one row, and lack of scales in the caudal fin.[3] The characteristic of extension of scales onto the caudal fin that differentiates this genus from Hemigrammus is not satisfactory as it occurs in intermediate conditions.[3]

This genus is not monophyletic.[3] A monophyletic group within Hyphessobrycon has been hypothesized, termed the rosy tetra clade; this group is based upon coloration pattern and the shape of dorsal and anal fins of males.[1] Recognition of monophyletic groups among Hyphessobrycon species is complicated by the difficulty in finding characters useful for hypothesis of relationships among the species.[1] Traditional characters used to identify Hyphessobrycon are phylogenetically unreliable.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The generic name, Hyphessobrycon, is of slightly uncertain origin. The second part derives from the Greek βρύκω (to bite); the first, derives from an ostensible Greek hyphesson, which may be an error for υπελάσσων (slightly smaller).[4]

Distribution[edit]

The genus is distributed from southern Mexico to Río de la Plata in Argentina, achieving its highest species diversity east of the Andes in northern South America.[2]

Appearance and anatomy[edit]

Lemon tetra

All small fishes, the Hyphessobrycon tetras reach maximum overall lengths of about 2–7 cm (0.75–2.75 in). There is great anatomical diversity in this genus.[3] They are generally of typical characin shape, but vary greatly in coloration and body form, many species having distinctive black, red, or yellow markings on their bodies or fins.

Ecology[edit]

The Hyphessobrycon species are generally omnivorous, feeding predominantly on small crustaceans, insects, annelid worms, and zooplankton. When spawning, they scatter their eggs and guard neither eggs nor young.

Relationship to humans[edit]

None of the roughly one hundred fishes in the genus has been rated by the IUCN, but many species have small distributions and at least one, H. flammeus, is believed to be extinct in the wild.[5] Many Hyphessobrycon species are popular aquarium fish.

Species[edit]

There are currently 138 recognized species in this genus:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Bertaco, Vinicius A.; Malabarba, Luiz R. Malabarba (2005). "A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from the upper rio Tocantins drainage, with bony hooks on fins" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology 3 (1): 83–88. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252005000100004. 
  2. ^ a b c d Lima, Flávio C. T.; Moreira, Cristiano R. (2003). "Three new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from the upper rio Araguaia basin in Brazil" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology 1 (1): 21–33. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252003000100003. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f de Lucena, Carlos Alberto Santos (2003). "New characid fish, Hyphessobrycon scutulatus, from the rio Teles Pires drainage, upper rio Tapajós system (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae)" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology 1 (2): 93–96. doi:10.1590/s1679-62252003000200003. 
  4. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Hyphessobrycon in FishBase. June 2013 version.
  5. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Hyphessobrycon flammeus" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  6. ^ García-Alzate, C. A., Román-Valencia, C. & Taphorn, D. C. (2013): Una nueva especie de Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) de la cuenca del río Telembí, vertiente sur del Pacífico, Colombia. Revista de Biologìa Tropical (International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation), 61 (1): 181-192.
  7. ^ a b c Zarske, A. (2014): Zur Systematik einiger Blutsalmler oder „Rosy Tetras“ (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characidae). Vertebrate Zoology, 64 (2): 139–167.
  8. ^ Dagosta, F.C.P., Marinho, M.M.F. & Camelier, P. (2014): A new species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin (Characiformes: Characidae) from the middle rio São Francisco and upper and middle rio Tocantins basins, Brazil, with comments on its biogeographic history. Neotropical Ichthyology, 12 (2): 365-375.
  9. ^ a b García-Alzate, C.A., Román-Valencia, C. & Ortega, H. (2013): Hyphessobrycon taphorni y H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) dos nuevas especies de peces de la cuenca del río Madre de Dios, Perú. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 61 (2): 859-873. (in Spanish)
  10. ^ Bertaco, Vinicius A.; Carvalho, Tiago P. (2005). "A new characid fish, Hyphessobrycon hexastichos (Characiformes: Characidae) from Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso, Brazil" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology 3 (3): 439–443. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252005000300013. 
  11. ^ Teixeira, T.F., Lima, F.C.T. & Zuanon, J. (2014): A New Hyphessobrycon Durbin from the Rio Teles Pires, Rio Tapajós Basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae). Copeia, 2013 (4) [2014]: 612-621.
  12. ^ Zarske, Axel (2008). "Hyphessobrycon khardinae sp. n. – ein neuer Blutsalmler aus Brasilien (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae)". Vertebrate Zoology 58: 5–13. 
  13. ^ a b Carvalho, Tiago Pinto; Bertaco, Vinicius Araújo (2006). "Two new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from upper rio Tapajós basin on Chapada dos Parecis, Central Brazil" ([dead link]Scholar search). Neotropical Ichthyology 4 (3): 301–308. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252006000300001. 
  14. ^ Lima, F.C.T., Coutinho, D.P. & Wosiacki, W.B. (2014): A new Hyphessobrycon (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae) from the middle Amazon basin, Brazil. Zootaxa, 3872 (2): 167–179.
  15. ^ García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn (2008). "Hyphessobrycon oritoensis (Characiformes: Characidae), a new species from the Putumayo River drainage, Colombian Amazon". Zootaxa 1813: 42–50. 
  16. ^ Ingenito, L.F.S., Lima, F.C.T. & Buckup, P.A. (2013): A new species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Juruena basin, Central Brazil, with notes on H. loweae Costa & Géry. Neotropical Ichthyology, 11 (1): 33-44.
  17. ^ Carvalho; et al. (2008). "Hyphessobrycon rutiliflavidus n. sp., a new characid fish from the upper rio Paraguai, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa 1674: 39–49. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  18. ^ Carvalho, F.R. & Langeani, F. (2013): Hyphessobrycon uaiso: new characid fish from the rio Grande, upper rio Paraná basin, Minas Gerais State (Ostariophysi: Characidae), with a brief comment about some types of Hyphessobrycon. Neotropical Ichthyology, 11 (3): 525-536.
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