Overview

Brief Summary

Green June Beetles (Cotinis nitida), common scarabaeid beetles in the subfamily Cetoniinae, are found in the southeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Adults are 20 to 23 mm long. Larvae (grubs) feed on humus and roots in lawns and gardens and have the habit of crawling on their backs. Adults, which are active during the day, feed on foliage, flowers, and some fruit. Three other Cotinis species occur in the central and southern United States. (White 1983)

The Green June Beetle is of economic importance as a common pest of ripe or wounded tree and vineyard fruit. In the southeastern United States, where viticulture is an emerging industry, the proximity of pasture and other grassy larval habitats can lead to high numbers of these beetles in vineyards. Besides directly damaging the berries, Green June Beetles taint them with odorous secretions. Damaged fruits and the beetles themselves may be inadvertently harvested, contaminating the crop. Adult Green June Beetles normally feed on soft, ripe fruits, but the introduced Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica)--first detected in North America in 1916 and now established throughout most of the eastern United States and continuing its spread into the Great Plains and south central states--facilitates access to foods on which the Green June Beetle could not otherwise feed. Whereas Green June Beetle mandibles are bluntly spatulate, non-opposable, and specialized for feeding on fruit pulp, plant exudates, and similar soft foods, Japanese Beetles have sharply pointed, opposable mandibles used mainly to skeletonize leaves, but also used to bite through intact skins of ripe fruits. Japanese Beetles facilitate feeding on grapes by Green June Beetles not only by biting through the skin and providing access to the pulp, but also by by eliciting yeast-mediated fermentation volatiles that Green June Beetles exploit in finding hosts.

(Hammons et al. 2008, 2009, 2010)

Pszczolkowski et al. (2008) discuss the limits of characters commonly used by researchers to distinguish male and female Green June Beetles.

Aktakka et al. (2011) used Green June Beetles to develop a prototype system for scavenging energy from a flying insect, with an eye toward using this energy in the fabrication of "hybrid insect vehicles", cyborg insects that could be controlled via neural, optical, or thermal stimulators, with the power for the inserted microsystem supplied by harvesting the insect’s available mechanical, thermal, or biological energy. The vision of investigators working on such "micro-air-vehicles" (MAVs), whether purely synthetic robots or cyborg insects, is that they could be used for search-and-rescue operations, surveillance, monitoring of hazardous environments, and detection of explosives by taking advantage of their small size and the networked communication possible between multiple MAVs.

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Physical Description

Type Information

Type for Cotinis nitida pygidialis Casey, 1915
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Pinned
Locality: St. Louis, Missouri, United States
  • Type: Casey. A Review of the American Species of Rutelinae, Dynastinae and Cetoniinae. Memoirs on the Coleoptera VI. 292.
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Type for Cotinis debiliceps Casey, 1915
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Pinned
Locality: Ash Grove; Va., Virginia, United States
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Type for Cotinis nitida tibialis Casey, 1915
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Pinned
Collector(s): Unknown
Locality: St. Petersburg, Pinellas, Florida, United States
  • Type: Casey. A Review of the American Species of Rutelinae, Dynastinae and Cetoniinae. Memoirs on the Coleoptera VI. 292.
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Type for Cotinis nitida ornata Casey, 1915
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Pinned
Locality: Tex., Texas, United States
  • Type: Casey. A Review of the American Species of Rutelinae, Dynastinae and Cetoniinae. Memoirs on the Coleoptera VI. 291.
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Type for Cotinis parvula Casey, 1915
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Pinned
Locality: N. C., North Carolina, United States
  • Type: Casey. A Review of the American Species of Rutelinae, Dynastinae and Cetoniinae. Memoirs on the Coleoptera VI. 291.
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Type for Cotinis longula Casey, 1915
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Pinned
Locality: Ind., Indiana, United States
  • Type: Casey. A Review of the American Species of Rutelinae, Dynastinae and Cetoniinae. Memoirs on the Coleoptera VI. 290.
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Type for Cotinis angustula Casey, 1915
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Pinned
Locality: Va: Norfolk, Virginia, United States
  • Type: Casey. A Review of the American Species of Rutelinae, Dynastinae and Cetoniinae. Memoirs on the Coleoptera VI. 290.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cotinis nitida

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Cotinis nitida

Cotinis nitida, commonly known as the green June beetle, June bug or June beetle,[1] is a beetle of the family Scarabaeidae. It occurs in the eastern United States, where it is most abundant in the south. It is sometimes confused with the related southwestern species Cotinis mutabilis, which is less destructive.

The green June beetle is active during daylight hours. The adult is usually 15–22 mm (0.59–0.87 in) long with dull, metallic green wings; its sides are gold and the head, legs and underside are very bright shiny green. Their habitat extends from Maine to Georgia, and as far west as Kansas, with possible population crossover in Texas with their western cousin, the figeater beetle.

Life cycle[edit]

The complete life cycle for the green June beetle is one year. Once the mating process has taken place, the female will lay between 60 and 75 eggs underground during a two-week period. The eggs, when first laid, appear white and elliptical in shape, gradually becoming more spherical as the larvae develop. The eggs hatch in approximately 18 days into small, white grubs. The grubs will grow to about 40mm and appear to be white with a brownish-black head and brown spiracles along the sides of the body. The larvae will molt twice before winter. Pupation occurs after the third larval stage, which lasts nearly nine months. The adults begin to appear in June after 18 days of the pupation period.

The adult green June beetle will feed upon a variety of fruits including berries, peaches, nectarines, apples, and figs. Adults are particularly attracted to rotting fruit. The larvae are considered pests when they cause damage to lawns or turfgrasses.

References[edit]


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