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Overview

Brief Summary

Although you may expect a plant called dog rose is of lesser quality than other rose species, the name actually comes from the fact that this plant used to be used to treat dog bites (rabies). Dog rose is one of the least choosy woody plants in the rose family. It grows in sunny as well as half shadowy places and in all kinds of soils, with the exception of very nutrient-poor ground, acidic soil or peat. In the dunes, dog rose grows in sands where lots of plant materials degrade.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Associations

Fungus / parasite
Podosphaera pannosa parasitises Rosa canina Pubescentes

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodia albida grows on small, decorticated, fallen branch of Rosa canina sens.str.

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhagoletis alternata feeds within fruit of Rosa canina sens.str.

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Foodplant / parasite
aggregated, stromatic pseudothecium of Botryosphaeria dothidea parasitises live stem of Rosa canina agg.
Remarks: season: 1-10

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
immersed pycnidium of Coniothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Coniothyrium wernsdorffiae causes spots on live branch (small) of Rosa canina agg.

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus bipunctatus may be found on Rosa canina agg.
Remarks: season: 4-late 8

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious to scattered, subepidermal, finally erumpent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe incarcerata is saprobic on dead prickle of Rosa canina agg.
Remarks: season: 4-6

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous acervulus of Marssonina coelomycetous anamorph of Diplocarpon rosae causes spots on live leaf of Rosa canina agg.
Remarks: season: late Spring-

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Endelomyia aethiops grazes on live leaf of Rosa canina agg.
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Nathrius brevipennis feeds within dead twig of Rosa canina agg.

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Orsodacne cerasi feeds on anther of Rosa canina agg.
Remarks: season: 4-9

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora boidinii is saprobic on dead wood of Rosa canina agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora incarnata is saprobic on dead, attached branch (small) of Rosa canina agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora limitata is saprobic on old stem of Rosa canina agg.
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
covered, then opening acervulus of Pestaliopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis versicolor is saprobic on dead branch of Rosa canina agg.

Foodplant / parasite
caeomoid aecium of Phragmidium mucronatum parasitises live fruit of Rosa canina agg.

Foodplant / gall
telium of Phragmidium tuberculatum causes gall of live leaf of Rosa canina agg.
Remarks: season: autumn
Other: unusual host/prey

Fungus / parasite
Podosphaera pannosa parasitises Rosa canina agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, in rows pseudothecium of Saccothecium sepincola is saprobic on dead twig of Rosa canina agg.
Remarks: season: 2-4
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Seimatosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Seimatosporium rosarum is saprobic on dead leaf of Rosa canina agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
subiculate apothecium of Tapesia rosae is saprobic on dead stem of Rosa canina agg.
Remarks: season: 1-6,9

Foodplant / pathogen
Amerosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Zoellneria rosarum infects and damages prematurely fallen leaf of Rosa canina agg.
Remarks: season: 8-12

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Rosa canina

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rosa canina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Rosa canina

Rosa canina, commonly known as the dog-rose,[1] is a variable climbing wild rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia.

It is a deciduous shrub normally ranging in height from 1–5 m, though sometimes it can scramble higher into the crowns of taller trees. Its stems are covered with small, sharp, hooked prickles, which aid it in climbing. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets. The flowers are usually pale pink, but can vary between a deep pink and white. They are 4–6 cm diameter with five petals, and mature into an oval 1.5–2 cm red-orange fruit, or hip.

Synonyms[edit]

From DNA analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms of wild-rose samples from a transect across Europe (900 samples from section Caninae, and 200 from other sections), it has been suggested that the following named species are best considered as part of a single Rosa canina species complex, and are therefore synonyms of R. canina:[2]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

A botanical illustration showing the various stages of growth by Otto Wilhelm Thomé

The plant is high in certain antioxidants. The fruit is noted for its high vitamin C level and is used to make syrup, tea and marmalade. It has been grown or encouraged in the wild for the production of vitamin C, from its fruit (often as rose-hip syrup), especially during conditions of scarcity or during wartime. The species has also been introduced to other temperate latitudes. During World War II in the United States Rosa canina was planted in victory gardens, and can still be found growing throughout the United States, including roadsides, and in wet, sandy areas up and down coastlines. In Bulgaria, where it grows in abundance, the hips are used to make a sweet wine, as well as tea. In the traditional Austrian medicine Rosa canina fruits have been used internally as tea for treatment of viral infections and disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract.[3]

Forms of this plant are sometimes used as stocks for the grafting or budding of cultivated varieties. The wild plant is planted as a nurse or cover crop, or stabilising plant in land reclamation and specialised landscaping schemes.

Numerous cultivars have been named, though few are common in cultivation. The cultivar Rosa canina 'Assisiensis' is the only dog rose without prickles. The hips are used as a flavouring in Cockta, a soft drink made in Slovenia.

Canina meiosis[edit]

A tall, climbing Rosa canina shrub
Rose hips
Rose bedeguar gall on a dog rose

The dog roses, the Canina section of the genus Rosa (20-30 species and subspecies, which occur mostly in Northern and Central Europe), have an unusual kind of meiosis that is sometimes called permanent odd polyploidy, although it can occur with even polyploidy (e.g. in tetraploids or hexaploids). Regardless of ploidy level, only seven bivalents are formed leaving the other chromosomes as univalents. Univalents are included in egg cells, but not in pollen.[4][5] Similar processes occur in some other organisms.[6] Dogroses are most commonly pentaploid, i.e. five times the base number of seven chromosomes for the genus Rosa, but may be tetraploid or hexaploid as well.

Names and etymology[edit]

The botanical name is derived from the common names 'dog rose' or similar in several European languages, including classical Latin and ancient (Hellenistic period) Greek.

It is sometimes considered that the word 'dog' has a disparaging meaning in this context, indicating 'worthless' (by comparison with cultivated garden roses) (Vedel & Lange 1960). However it also known that it was used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to treat the bite of rabid dogs, hence the name "dog rose" may result from this[7] (though it seems just as plausible that the name gave rise to the treatment).

Other old folk names include dogberry and witches' briar.[citation needed]

Invasive species[edit]

Dog rose is an invasive species in the high country of New Zealand. It was recognised as displacing native vegetation as early as 1895[8] although the Department of Conservation does not consider it to be a conservation threat.[9]

Dog rose in culture[edit]

The dog rose was the stylized rose of medieval European heraldry, and is still used today.[citation needed] It is also the county flower of Hampshire.[10] Legend states the Thousand-year Rose or Hildesheim Rose, that climbs against a wall of Hildesheim Cathedral dates back to the establishment of the diocese in 815.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BSBI List 2007" (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  2. ^ Riek, J.D.; Cock, K.D.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Nybom, H. (2013). "AFLP-based population structure analysis as a means to validate the complex taxonomy of dogroses (Rosa section Caninae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 67 (3): 547–559. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.02.024. PMID 23499615. 
  3. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine - An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs. J Ethnopharmacol.2013 Jun13. doi:pii: S0378-8741(13)00410-8. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID 23770053. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770053
  4. ^ Täckholm, Gunnar (1922) Zytologische Studien über die Gattung Rosa. Acta Horti Bergiani 7, 97-381.
  5. ^ Lim,, K.Y.; Werlemark,, G.; Matyasek,, R.; Bringloe,, J.B.; Sieber,, V.; El Mokadem,, H.; Meynet,, J.; Hemming,, J. et al. (2005). "Evolutionary implications of permanent odd polyploidy in the stable sexual, pentaploid of Rosa canina L". Heredity 94 (5): 501–506. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800648. PMID 15770234. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  6. ^ Stock, M.; Ustinova, J.; Betto-Colliard, C.; Schartl, M.; Moritz, C.; Perrin, N. (2011). "Simultaneous Mendelian and clonal genome transmission in a sexually reproducing, all-triploid vertebrate". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279 (1732): 1293. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1738.  edit
  7. ^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987); p133
  8. ^ Kirk, T (1895). "The Displacement of Species in New Zealand". Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 1895 (Wellington: Royal Society of New Zealand) 28. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  9. ^ Owen, S. J. (1997). Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: a database. Wellington: Department of Conservation. 
  10. ^ "County Flowers | Wild plants". Plantlife. Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  11. ^ Lucy Gordan. "Hildesheim’s Medieval Church Treasures at the Met". Inside the Vatican. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Flora Europaea: Rosa canina
  • Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-40170-2.
  • Vedel, H. & Lange, J. (1960). Trees and bushes. Metheun, London.
  • Graham G.S. & Primavesi A.L. (1993). Roses of Great Britain and Ireland. B.S.B.I. Handbook No. 7. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: A polyploid believed to be of ancient hybrid origin (cf. Intl Code Botanical Nomen., St. Louis ed. (2000), Art. H.3.3, Note 1, Example 3, regarding taxa of hybrid origin that are not treated as hybrids). LEM 17Oct01.

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