Overview

Brief Summary

Fragaria virginiana, Virginia strawberry (also known as mountain or wild strawberry), is a low-growing herbaceous perennial in the Rosaceae (rose family) native north temperate regions of North America, where it is wildly distributed from Newfoundland west to Alberta, and southward to Georgia, Tennessee, and Oklahoma, as well as in the Klamath, Cascade, and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges. The fruits are often collected in the wild, and this species is one of the progenitors (along with F. chiloensis) of the hybrid F.X ananassa, the garden or pineapple strawberry, which produces the bulk of commercially harvested strawberries.

F. virginiana plants are characterized by basal rosette of compound leaves, 2.5 to 10 cm (1 to 4 in) long, with 3 leaflets, each having 4 to 8 pairs of teeth. The plants are characterized by long arching runners or stolons, and that allow them to reproduce vegetatively as well as by seed. The small, white, 5-parted flowers, 0.5 to 2.5 cm (0.25 to 1 in) across, occur in small clusters. The strawberries are quite small, 0.5 to 2 cm (0.25 to 0.75 in) across, and generally ripen to red. The strawberry is not a true berry, but is a fleshy receptable bearing multiple fruits on the surface—these apparent seeds are actually achenes, small, one-seeded fruits with hard coverings that do not split open (dehisce) when ripe. The achenes on F. virginiana occur in deep pits (as opposed to projecting from the surface, as in the related and often co-occuring F. vesca, woodland strawberry).

Virginia strawberries are often wild-harvested, and sometimes cultivated. The small strawberries may be eaten fresh, cooked, or dried. They were important to indigenous people in the Great Lakes and Midwestern Prairie regions and Canada, who used the fruits for food, and prepared tea from the leaves.

This species generally grows at altitudes between 1200 and 3300 m. It has a wide distribution in North America, and may grow in hardwood, conifer, and mixed forests, as well swamps (but not in the wettest parts), shores, and clearings. It may be found in drier and sunnier sites than F. vesca.

(Bailey et al. 1976, Flora of China 2012, Michigan Flora Online 2011, USDA 2006, van Wyk 2005.)

  • Bailey, L.H., E.Z. Bailey, and the L.H. Bailey Hortatorium. 1976. Hortus Third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan. p. 484.
  • Flora of China. 2003. FRAGARIA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 494. 1753. Flora of China 9: 335–338. Available online: http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/PDF/PDF09/Fragaria.PDF.
  • MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. 2011. Reznicek, A. A., E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. University of Michigan. Web. 7-8-2012. http://www.michiganflora.net/home.aspx.
  • USDA. 2006. Plant Guide: Mountain Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana). Prepared by M.K. Anderson and W. Roderick for USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center. Accessed online: http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/cs_frvi.pdf.
  • van Wyk, B.-E. 2005. “Fragaria ananassa.Food Plants of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 198.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

This is a low, colony-forming native perennial plant. A plant typically consists of several trifoliate leaves with long hairy petioles that emerge directly from a central taproot in the ground. Each leaflet is about 3" long and 1½" wide, pale green underneath, coarsely serrated, and obovate or oval in shape. The petioles of the compound leaves are green or dull red and about 3" long. While actively growing, Wild Strawberry produces long hairy runners up to 2' long, which re-root to form plantlets. These runners are often dull red as well. Each plant can produce one or more clusters of flowers in stalks about 3-4" long, which also emerge directly from the ground. Each flower is about ¾" across and consists of 5 white petals. Toward the center, there are about 25 yellow stamens surrounding a small blunt cone. The blooming period occurs during late spring or early summer, and lasts about 1-2 months. There is no noticeable floral scent. Afterwards, small red drupes are produced that are about ½–¾" long, and shaped like the familiar cultivated strawberry. They are sweet and edible. Unlike Fragaria vesca (Hillside Strawberry), the yellow achenes occur in sunken pits along the surface of the drupe.
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Comments

This is one of the parent plants for the cultivated hybrid strawberry (the other plant being native to Chile). The root system forms a symbiotic relationship with endomycorrhizal bacteria. Return
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Description

General: Rose Family (Rosaceae). This herbaceous perennial plant spreads by seed and also by short rhizomes and leafless stolons. The toothed leaves are thin and basal with a petiole generally 1-12 cm. They appear in leaflets of 3 and are generally glabrous above. The flowers have 5 white petals that are 4-9 mm. with numerous pistils and 20-35 stamens. The five bractlets are unlobed. The red fleshy fruit is covered with achenes.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Alternative names

Wild strawberry, Virginia strawberry

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Wild Strawberry is occasional to locally common in most areas of Illinois, but it is uncommon or absent in parts of NW and southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist to mesic black soil prairies, openings and edges of woodlands (including drier areas), savannas, limestone glades, and areas along railroads. Wild Strawberry is able to tolerate competition from taller plants because it develops early in the spring, and is able to tolerate some shade later in the year. It occurs in both degraded and high quality habitats, often not far from woodland areas.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Potentilla virginiana (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause:
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Pp. 1-939.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100008595 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Fragaria virginiana var. australis Rydb.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Choripetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 2. 655 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1704 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Fragaria virginiana var. canadensis (Michx.) Farw.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Choripetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 2. 655 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1704 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Fragaria multicipita Fernald:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site. This plant is found between 1200 and 3300 m in meadows and forest openings. It occurs in the Klamath Ranges, high Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau, Sierra Nevada, to eastern North America.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Fragaria platypetala Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 277419
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. W. Evermann
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Near Sawtooth, Idaho, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 273085
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. C. Nealley
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Rincon Mountains., Arizona, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2286 to 2286
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Syntype for Fragaria platypetala Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 226406
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): L. F. Henderson
Year Collected: 1894
Locality: Idaho, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria truncata Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 18357
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. Bridges
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: California, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria platypetala Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 18392
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Wolf
Year Collected: 1873
Locality: Colorado, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria platypetala Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 255392
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. Blasdale
Year Collected: 1895
Locality: Yosemite Valley, California, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria platypetala Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 230313
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Lake & W. Hull
Year Collected: 892
Locality: Washington, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 285653
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Nelson
Year Collected: 1894
Locality: Horse Creek., Wyoming, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Isotype for Fragaria yukonensis Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 391478
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Tarleton
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: Head of Lake Lebarge., Yukon Territory, Canada, North America
  • Isotype: Rydberg, P. A. 1908. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 364.
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Isotype for Fragaria pauciflora Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 284319
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Flodman
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Galatin Valley near Bozeman., Gallatin, Montana, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 1615 to 1615
  • Isotype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 183.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 254371
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. M. Coulter
Year Collected: 1873
Locality: Clear Creek Canyon., Colorado, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2438 to 2438
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 216432
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. Crandall
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: Canyon of Cache La Poudre., Colorado, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 253059
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. E. Jones
Year Collected: 1894
Locality: Marysvale in Bullion Canyon., Piute, Utah, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 18345
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Palmer
Year Collected: 1890
Locality: Willow Spring., Arizona, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 212416
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. W. Toumey
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: San Francisco Mts., Arizona, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Isotype for Fragaria multicipita Fernald
Catalog Number: US 606066
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. L. Fernald & J. Collins
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: River Ste. Anne des Monts., Quebec, Canada, North America
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1908. Rhodora. 10: 49.
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Isotype for Fragaria pumila Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 211032
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. A. Rydberg
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: Custer., Custer, South Dakota, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 1676 to 1676
  • Isotype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 181.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Wild Strawberry is occasional to locally common in most areas of Illinois, but it is uncommon or absent in parts of NW and southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist to mesic black soil prairies, openings and edges of woodlands (including drier areas), savannas, limestone glades, and areas along railroads. Wild Strawberry is able to tolerate competition from taller plants because it develops early in the spring, and is able to tolerate some shade later in the year. It occurs in both degraded and high quality habitats, often not far from woodland areas.
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Dispersal

Establishment

This strawberry is best established at higher elevations where a good frost occurs (over 600 m). Dig up plantlets or runners and plant them in pots in fall--being sure to cover the stems and roots in soil. Place the pots in a sheltered place to establish good, strong roots. Water the plants or runners and keep them moist. Plant the seedlings outdoors in the ground in late winter or early spring. They should be planted in full sun, in a light loose soil, about ten inches apart. It will not take long for the plants to make a complete ground cover. Lightly fertilize the plants during the growing season. Note that those plants that have bigger flowers usually have less fruit and those with smaller flowers have more fruit. Protect the plants from gophers, deer, squirrels, raccoons, and other wildlife.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Wild Strawberry in Illinois

Fragaria virginiana (Wild Strawberry)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar, other insects suck nectar or feed on pollen; some observations are from Evans, Moure & Hurd, Mitchell, Grundel & Pavlovic, Krombein et al., MacRae, and Swengel & Swengel as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata (Mch), Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp fq (Rb, Ev); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia speciosa sn; Anthophoridae (Melectini): Melecta thoracica sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada illinoiensis sn, Nomada ovatus sn, Nomada parva sn (Mch), Nomada superba superba sn; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons (Ev), Osmia atriventris sn cp, Osmia conjuncta (Mch), Osmia georgica (Mch), Osmia illinoensis sn, Osmia lignaria lignaria (Mch), Osmia pumila sn cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea (Mch), Agapostemon texanus texanus (Mch), Augochlora purus purus sn cp, Augochlorella aurata sn cp fq, Augochlorella striata sn cp, Augochloropsis metallica metallica (Mch, Ev), Halictus confusus sn cp fq (Rb, Ev), Halictus ligatus sn cp, Halictus rubicunda (Mch, Ev), Lasioglossum bruneri (MH), Lasioglossum coreopsis (Mch), Lasioglossum imitatus (Mch), Lasioglossum obscurus (MH), Lasioglossum pectoralis sn cp fq (Rb, Ev), Lasioglossum perpunctatus (MH), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp fq (Rb, Ev), Lasioglossum tegularis sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes cressonii sn (Mch), Sphecodes heraclei heraclei sn (Mch), Sphecodes stygius sn; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis sn, Hylaeus mesillae sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena alleghaniensis (Kr), Andrena barbilabris sn, Andrena crataegi (Ev), Andrena cressonii sn, Andrena forbesii sn (Rb, Kr), Andrena miserabilis bipunctata (Mch), Andrena melanochroa cp (Kr), Andrena nasonii sn fq, Andrena perplexa (Kr), Andrena personata (Mch), Andrena placida (Mch), Andrena sigmundi (Kr)

Wasps
Vespidae: Polistes fuscata

Flies
Stratiomyidae: Nemotelus glaber; Syrphidae: Eristalis arbustorum, Eristalis transversus, Helophilus fasciatus, Orthonevra pictipennis, Paragus bicolor fq, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Toxomerus marginatus, Tropidia mamillata; Empidae: Rhamphomyia priapulus; Bombyliidae: Bombylius fascipennis; Conopidae: Myopa vesiculosa, Zodion fulvifrons; Tachinidae: Gymnosoma fuliginosum, Tachinomyia panaetius; Calliphoridae: Lucilia illustris, Lucilia sericata; Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax, Sarcophaga sinuata fq; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura; Fanniidae: Fannia manicata

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Phyciodes tharos; Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas, Lycaeides melissa samuelis (GP, Sw); Pieridae: Colias philodice, Pieris rapae

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Erynnis juvenalis, Pholisora catullus

Moths
Noctuidae: Anagrapha falcifera

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera neglecta (McR)

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Faunal Associations

The ecological value of Wild Strawberry to various insects, birds, and animals is high. The flowers attract long-tongued bees, short-tongued bees, flies, small butterflies, and skippers. Among these, small bees are the most important pollinator of the flowers; this includes such visitors as Little Carpenter bees, Nomadine Cuckoo bees, Mason bees, Halictid bees, and Andrenine bees. The caterpillars of several species of moths feed on the foliage and flowers of Wild Strawberry (see Moth Table). Other insects that feed on Wild Strawberry include Chactosiphum fragraefolii (Strawberry Aphid), Aphis forbesi (Strawberry Root Aphid), and Otiochynchus ovatus (Strawberry Root Weevil). Various upland gamebirds, songbirds, and mammals eat the fruit or foliage (see Wildlife Table), including such prairie-inhabiting species as Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) and Phasianus colchicus (Ring-Necked Pheasant). These birds and animals help to distribute the seeds far and wide. People also nibble on the fruits.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Fragaria virginiana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 35
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

FRVI is somewhat available through native plant nurseries within its range. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Keep the runners pruned back because they can be invasive. It is necessary to divide the patch every 3 to 4 years and start a new patch for increased vigor. Younger plants are more vigorous and produce more berries.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun and moist to slightly dry conditions. A rich loamy soil is preferred. Wild Strawberry is a cool-season plant that grows actively during the spring and fall, but becomes dormant after setting fruit during the hot summer months. It is an easy plant to grow, which will spread to form a loose ground cover. It is subject to foliar disease to a lesser extent than most cultivated strawberries.
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Uses

Ethnobotanic: Indigenous peoples throughout parts of Canada picked and ate the savory fruit of this plant. Midwestern prairie and Great Lakes tribes, such as the Omaha, Hidatsa, Mandan, Dakota, Pawnee, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, and the Winnebago ate these strawberries raw, cooked or dried. The Winnebago and Blackfoot made a tea with an infusion of the young leaves of this plant.

Wildlife: The Portola woodrat and the valley quail eat the fruit and leaves of wild strawberries.

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Wikipedia

Virginia strawberry

The Virginia strawberry, wild strawberry, or common strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) is one of two species of strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern domesticated garden strawberry. Its natural range is confined to North America, in the United States (including Alaska) and Canada, although a popular variety called "Little Scarlet" is grown only in Great Britain, having been imported from the United States in the early 1900s.

Fragaria virginiana var. platypetala usually has dense and spreading pubescence on flower and leaf stalks as illustrated by this individual.

Subspecies[edit]

There are four recognized subspecies:

Cytology[edit]

All strawberries have a base haploid count of 7 chromosomes. Fragaria virginiana is octoploid, having eight sets of these chromosomes for a total of 56. These eight genomes pair as four distinct sets, of two different types, with little or no pairing between sets. The genome composition of the octoploid strawberry species has generally been indicated as AAA'A'BBB'B'. The A-type genomes were likely contributed by diploid ancestors related to Fragaria vesca or similar species, while the B-type genomes seem to descend from a close relative of Fragaria iinumae. The exact process of hybridization and speciation which resulted in the octoploid species is still unknown, but it appears that the genome compositions of both Fragaria chiloensis and Fragaria virginiana (and by extension the cultivated octoploid strawberry as well) are identical.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Widespread, generally distinct species with several subspecies. Some unusual plants of one site on the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec are sometimes distinguished as the species Fragaria multicipita, but either ignored or treated within F. virginica in most floras. Kartesz (1999) treats F. multicipita as a synonym of his F. virginica var. glauca. LEM 27Sep00.

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