Overview

Brief Summary

Fragaria virginiana, Virginia strawberry (also known as mountain or wild strawberry), is a low-growing herbaceous perennial in the Rosaceae (rose family) native north temperate regions of North America, where it is wildly distributed from Newfoundland west to Alberta, and southward to Georgia, Tennessee, and Oklahoma, as well as in the Klamath, Cascade, and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges. The fruits are often collected in the wild, and this species is one of the progenitors (along with F. chiloensis) of the hybrid F.X ananassa, the garden or pineapple strawberry, which produces the bulk of commercially harvested strawberries.

F. virginiana plants are characterized by basal rosette of compound leaves, 2.5 to 10 cm (1 to 4 in) long, with 3 leaflets, each having 4 to 8 pairs of teeth. The plants are characterized by long arching runners or stolons, and that allow them to reproduce vegetatively as well as by seed. The small, white, 5-parted flowers, 0.5 to 2.5 cm (0.25 to 1 in) across, occur in small clusters. The strawberries are quite small, 0.5 to 2 cm (0.25 to 0.75 in) across, and generally ripen to red. The strawberry is not a true berry, but is a fleshy receptable bearing multiple fruits on the surface—these apparent seeds are actually achenes, small, one-seeded fruits with hard coverings that do not split open (dehisce) when ripe. The achenes on F. virginiana occur in deep pits (as opposed to projecting from the surface, as in the related and often co-occuring F. vesca, woodland strawberry).

Virginia strawberries are often wild-harvested, and sometimes cultivated. The small strawberries may be eaten fresh, cooked, or dried. They were important to indigenous people in the Great Lakes and Midwestern Prairie regions and Canada, who used the fruits for food, and prepared tea from the leaves.

This species generally grows at altitudes between 1200 and 3300 m. It has a wide distribution in North America, and may grow in hardwood, conifer, and mixed forests, as well swamps (but not in the wettest parts), shores, and clearings. It may be found in drier and sunnier sites than F. vesca.

(Bailey et al. 1976, Flora of China 2012, Michigan Flora Online 2011, USDA 2006, van Wyk 2005.)

  • Bailey, L.H., E.Z. Bailey, and the L.H. Bailey Hortatorium. 1976. Hortus Third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan. p. 484.
  • Flora of China. 2003. FRAGARIA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 494. 1753. Flora of China 9: 335–338. Available online: http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/PDF/PDF09/Fragaria.PDF.
  • MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. 2011. Reznicek, A. A., E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. University of Michigan. Web. 7-8-2012. http://www.michiganflora.net/home.aspx.
  • USDA. 2006. Plant Guide: Mountain Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana). Prepared by M.K. Anderson and W. Roderick for USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center. Accessed online: http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/cs_frvi.pdf.
  • van Wyk, B.-E. 2005. “Fragaria ananassa.Food Plants of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 198.
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Comprehensive Description

Comments

This is one of the parent plants for the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). The other parent plant of the cultivated strawberry is the Coastal Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis). This latter species is found along the Pacific Coast in both North and South America. The cultivated strawberry inherited the superior flavor of the Wild Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) and the larger fruit size of the Coastal Strawberry. The Wild Strawberry produces attractive white flowers during the spring and small red fruits during the early summer. It is similar in appearance to another native species, the Hillside Strawberry (Fragaria vesca americana). The fruits of Hillside Strawberry have sepals and sepal-like bracts that are spreading to reflexed, rather than appressed. The fruits of Hillside Strawberry also have seeds scattered on top of their surfaces, rather than enclosed in shallow pits. This strawberry species is found in northern Illinois, where it is uncommon. It is closely related to the Alpine Strawberry (Fragaria vesca vesca), which is found in Europe Return
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Description

This herbaceous perennial plant is 4-7" tall, consisting of several basal leaves and one or more inflorescences. The basal leaves are trifoliate. The leaflets are up to 2½" long and 1½" across; they are obovate or oval in shape and coarsely toothed along their middle to outer margins. The tips of leaflets are rounded, while their bottoms are either wedge-shaped or rounded. The upper leaflet surface is medium to dark green and glabrous. The lower leaflet surface is variably hairy; fine hairs are most likely to occur along the bases of central veins, but they may occur elsewhere along the lower surface. Leaflet venation is pinnate and conspicuous. The petiolules (basal stalklets) of leaflets are light green, hairy, and very short (about 1 mm. in length). The petioles of basal leaves are up to 6" long; they are light green to light reddish green, terete, and hairy. One or more umbel-like clusters of flowers are produced from long peduncles up to 5" long. These peduncles are light green to light reddish green, terete, and hairy. Each umbel-like cluster has about 4-6 flowers on pedicels up to ¾" long. These pedicels are light green to light reddish green, terete, and hairy. At the base of these pedicels, there are several bracts up to ¼" long that are light green to dark red, lanceolate in shape, and hairy. Individual flowers are about ½–¾" across when they are fully open; they can be pistillate, staminate, or perfect (staminate flowers are the least common). Each flower has 5 white petals, 5 green sepals, and 5 green sepal-like bracts. The petals are oval to orbicular in shape; they are longer than either the sepals or sepal-like bracts. The sepals are lanceolate in shape and hairy, while the sepal-like bracts are linear-lanceolate and hairy; both sepals and sepal-like bracts are joined together at the base of the flower. Each pistillate flower has a dome-shaped cluster of pistils at its center that is greenish yellow or pale yellow. Each staminate flower has 20-35 stamens with pale yellow filaments and yellow anthers. Each perfect flower has a dome-shaped cluster of pistils at its center and a ring of surrounding stamens. The blooming period occurs from late spring to early summer, lasting about 3-4 weeks. Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by fruits when growing conditions are favorable, otherwise they abort. These fruits are up to ½" long and across; they are globoid or globoid-ovoid in shape, becoming bright red at maturity. Small seeds are scattered across the surface of these fruits in sunken pits; the persistent sepals and sepal-like bracts are appressed to the upper surface of these fruits. The fleshy interior of these fruits has a sweet-tart flavor; they are edible. The root system consists of a shallow crown with fibrous roots. After the production of flowers and fruits, hairy above-ground stolons up to 2' long may develop from the crown. When the tips of these stolons touch the ground, they often form plantlets that take root. In this manner, clonal colonies of plants often develop. Cultivation
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Description

General: Rose Family (Rosaceae). This herbaceous perennial plant spreads by seed and also by short rhizomes and leafless stolons. The toothed leaves are thin and basal with a petiole generally 1-12 cm. They appear in leaflets of 3 and are generally glabrous above. The flowers have 5 white petals that are 4-9 mm. with numerous pistils and 20-35 stamens. The five bractlets are unlobed. The red fleshy fruit is covered with achenes.

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Alternative names

Wild strawberry, Virginia strawberry

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Wild Strawberry is common in most areas of Illinois, although in parts of NW and southern Illinois it is occasional or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include black soil prairies, hill prairies, bluegrass meadows, small meadows in wooded areas, open woodlands, woodland borders, savannas, limestone glades, roadsides, and areas along railroads. Wild Strawberry is able to tolerate competition from taller plants because it develops early in the spring, and it is able to tolerate some shade later in the year. This plant occurs in both degraded and high quality habitats, often not far from wooded areas. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site. This plant is found between 1200 and 3300 m in meadows and forest openings. It occurs in the Klamath Ranges, high Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau, Sierra Nevada, to eastern North America.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Fragaria platypetala Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 277419
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. W. Evermann
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Near Sawtooth, Idaho, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 273085
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. C. Nealley
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Rincon Mountains., Arizona, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2286 to 2286
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Syntype for Fragaria platypetala Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 226406
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): L. F. Henderson
Year Collected: 1894
Locality: Idaho, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria truncata Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 18357
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. Bridges
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: California, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria platypetala Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 18392
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Wolf
Year Collected: 1873
Locality: Colorado, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria platypetala Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 255392
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. Blasdale
Year Collected: 1895
Locality: Yosemite Valley, California, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria platypetala Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 230313
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Lake & W. Hull
Year Collected: 892
Locality: Washington, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Monogr. N. Amer. Potentilleae. 177.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 285653
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Nelson
Year Collected: 1894
Locality: Horse Creek., Wyoming, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Isotype for Fragaria yukonensis Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 391478
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Tarleton
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: Head of Lake Lebarge., Yukon Territory, Canada, North America
  • Isotype: Rydberg, P. A. 1908. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 364.
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Isotype for Fragaria pauciflora Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 284319
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Flodman
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Galatin Valley near Bozeman., Gallatin, Montana, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 1615 to 1615
  • Isotype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 183.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 254371
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. M. Coulter
Year Collected: 1873
Locality: Clear Creek Canyon., Colorado, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2438 to 2438
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 216432
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. Crandall
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: Canyon of Cache La Poudre., Colorado, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 253059
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. E. Jones
Year Collected: 1894
Locality: Marysvale in Bullion Canyon., Piute, Utah, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 18345
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Palmer
Year Collected: 1890
Locality: Willow Spring., Arizona, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Syntype for Fragaria firma Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 212416
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. W. Toumey
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: San Francisco Mts., Arizona, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 184.
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Isotype for Fragaria multicipita Fernald
Catalog Number: US 606066
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. L. Fernald & J. Collins
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: River Ste. Anne des Monts., Quebec, Canada, North America
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1908. Rhodora. 10: 49.
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Isotype for Fragaria pumila Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 211032
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. A. Rydberg
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: Custer., Custer, South Dakota, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 1676 to 1676
  • Isotype: Rydberg, P. A. 1898. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia Coll. 2: 181.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Wild Strawberry is common in most areas of Illinois, although in parts of NW and southern Illinois it is occasional or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include black soil prairies, hill prairies, bluegrass meadows, small meadows in wooded areas, open woodlands, woodland borders, savannas, limestone glades, roadsides, and areas along railroads. Wild Strawberry is able to tolerate competition from taller plants because it develops early in the spring, and it is able to tolerate some shade later in the year. This plant occurs in both degraded and high quality habitats, often not far from wooded areas. Faunal Associations
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Dispersal

Establishment

This strawberry is best established at higher elevations where a good frost occurs (over 600 m). Dig up plantlets or runners and plant them in pots in fall--being sure to cover the stems and roots in soil. Place the pots in a sheltered place to establish good, strong roots. Water the plants or runners and keep them moist. Plant the seedlings outdoors in the ground in late winter or early spring. They should be planted in full sun, in a light loose soil, about ten inches apart. It will not take long for the plants to make a complete ground cover. Lightly fertilize the plants during the growing season. Note that those plants that have bigger flowers usually have less fruit and those with smaller flowers have more fruit. Protect the plants from gophers, deer, squirrels, raccoons, and other wildlife.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Wild Strawberry in Illinois

Fragaria virginiana (Wild Strawberry)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar, other insects suck nectar or feed on pollen; some observations are from Evans, Moure & Hurd, Mitchell, Grundel & Pavlovic, Krombein et al., MacRae, and Swengel & Swengel as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata (Mch), Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp fq (Rb, Ev); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia speciosa sn; Anthophoridae (Melectini): Melecta thoracica sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada illinoiensis sn, Nomada ovatus sn, Nomada parva sn (Mch), Nomada superba superba sn; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons (Ev), Osmia atriventris sn cp, Osmia conjuncta (Mch), Osmia georgica (Mch), Osmia illinoensis sn, Osmia lignaria lignaria (Mch), Osmia pumila sn cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea (Mch), Agapostemon texanus texanus (Mch), Augochlora purus purus sn cp, Augochlorella aurata sn cp fq, Augochlorella striata sn cp, Augochloropsis metallica metallica (Mch, Ev), Halictus confusus sn cp fq (Rb, Ev), Halictus ligatus sn cp, Halictus rubicunda (Mch, Ev), Lasioglossum bruneri (MH), Lasioglossum coreopsis (Mch), Lasioglossum imitatus (Mch), Lasioglossum obscurus (MH), Lasioglossum pectoralis sn cp fq (Rb, Ev), Lasioglossum perpunctatus (MH), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp fq (Rb, Ev), Lasioglossum tegularis sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes cressonii sn (Mch), Sphecodes heraclei heraclei sn (Mch), Sphecodes stygius sn; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis sn, Hylaeus mesillae sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena alleghaniensis (Kr), Andrena barbilabris sn, Andrena crataegi (Ev), Andrena cressonii sn, Andrena forbesii sn (Rb, Kr), Andrena miserabilis bipunctata (Mch), Andrena melanochroa cp (Kr), Andrena nasonii sn fq, Andrena perplexa (Kr), Andrena personata (Mch), Andrena placida (Mch), Andrena sigmundi (Kr)

Wasps
Vespidae: Polistes fuscata

Flies
Stratiomyidae: Nemotelus glaber; Syrphidae: Eristalis arbustorum, Eristalis transversus, Helophilus fasciatus, Orthonevra pictipennis, Paragus bicolor fq, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Toxomerus marginatus, Tropidia mamillata; Empidae: Rhamphomyia priapulus; Bombyliidae: Bombylius fascipennis; Conopidae: Myopa vesiculosa, Zodion fulvifrons; Tachinidae: Gymnosoma fuliginosum, Tachinomyia panaetius; Calliphoridae: Lucilia illustris, Lucilia sericata; Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax, Sarcophaga sinuata fq; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura; Fanniidae: Fannia manicata

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Phyciodes tharos; Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas, Lycaeides melissa samuelis (GP, Sw); Pieridae: Colias philodice, Pieris rapae

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Erynnis juvenalis, Pholisora catullus

Moths
Noctuidae: Anagrapha falcifera

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera neglecta (McR)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Fragaria virginiana

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Fragaria virginiana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 35
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

FRVI is somewhat available through native plant nurseries within its range. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Keep the runners pruned back because they can be invasive. It is necessary to divide the patch every 3 to 4 years and start a new patch for increased vigor. Younger plants are more vigorous and produce more berries.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Ethnobotanic: Indigenous peoples throughout parts of Canada picked and ate the savory fruit of this plant. Midwestern prairie and Great Lakes tribes, such as the Omaha, Hidatsa, Mandan, Dakota, Pawnee, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, and the Winnebago ate these strawberries raw, cooked or dried. The Winnebago and Blackfoot made a tea with an infusion of the young leaves of this plant.

Wildlife: The Portola woodrat and the valley quail eat the fruit and leaves of wild strawberries.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

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Wikipedia

Virginia strawberry

The Virginia strawberry, wild strawberry, or common strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) is one of two species of strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern domesticated garden strawberry. Its natural range is confined to North America, in the United States (including Alaska) and Canada, although a popular variety called "Little Scarlet" is grown only in Great Britain, having been imported from the United States in the early 1900s.

Fragaria virginiana var. platypetala usually has dense and spreading pubescence on flower and leaf stalks as illustrated by this individual.

Subspecies[edit]

There are four recognized subspecies:

Cytology[edit]

All strawberries have a base haploid count of 7 chromosomes. Fragaria virginiana is octoploid, having eight sets of these chromosomes for a total of 56. These eight genomes pair as four distinct sets, of two different types, with little or no pairing between sets. The genome composition of the octoploid strawberry species has generally been indicated as AAA'A'BBB'B'. The A-type genomes were likely contributed by diploid ancestors related to Fragaria vesca or similar species, while the B-type genomes seem to descend from a close relative of Fragaria iinumae. The exact process of hybridization and speciation which resulted in the octoploid species is still unknown, but it appears that the genome compositions of both Fragaria chiloensis and Fragaria virginiana (and by extension the cultivated octoploid strawberry as well) are identical.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morphological and molecular variation among populations of octoploid Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (Rosaceae) from North America. Harrison R, Luby J, Furnier G, Hancock J., Am J Bot. 1997 May;84(5):612., pages 612-620.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Widespread, generally distinct species with several subspecies. Some unusual plants of one site on the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec are sometimes distinguished as the species Fragaria multicipita, but either ignored or treated within F. virginica in most floras. Kartesz (1999) treats F. multicipita as a synonym of his F. virginica var. glauca. LEM 27Sep00.

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