Overview

Brief Summary



Montipora is a genus of scleractinian or reef-building coral closely related to Acropora (Family Acroporidae), with typical growthform plate-like, encrusting, submassive, and foliaceous colony. Most corals, including Montipora, live as colonies of individuals (or polyps) and have endosymbiotic zooxanthellae that dwells inside polyp’s cells, thus producing energy and shading different color for the coral colonies. Related to major threats of corals, that is high temperatures affected by the global climate change, Montipora corals are susceptible to bleaching, disease, extreme weather and climate phenomena, as well as ocean acidification.

Montipora corals flourish in shallow reef environments with bright sunlight and moderate wave motion, although they can survive in all reef habitats from high-energy upper reef slopes to deeper lagoonal reefs. Small crevices among Montipora colonies provide habitats for small reef fishes, like Pomacentridae. At present, Montipora is estimated to have 75 extant species worldwide, ranging from the Red Sea and western Indian Ocean to the Southern Pacific. Aquarists value Montipora corals due to their contrasting and various colors, thus propping up immense demand for ornamental reef aquaria and resulted in several Montipora speces listed in IUCN Vulnerable status.

  • Veron, JEN. 2000. Corals of the World, Vol. 1, 2, 3. Sea Challengers
  • DeVantier, L., Hodgson, G., Huang, D., Johan, O., Licuanan, A., Obura, D., Sheppard, C., Syahrir, M. & Turak, E. 2008. Montipora cocosensis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on 13 December 2011.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Colonies are submassive, laminar, foliaceous, encrusting or branching. Corallites are very small. Septa are in two cycles with inward-projecting teeth. Columellae are absent. Corallite walls and the coenosteum are porous and may be highly elaborated. Polyps are usually extended only at night (Veron, 1986). Commonly forms plates or encrusting sheets, but also several other forms. Distinguished by its deep, tiny corallites (<1mm across) separated by porous walls. Since the corallites lack virtually any features, identification to species level is very difficult. When forming plates, corallites occur on both surfaces (Richmond, 1997).
  • Veron, J.E.N. (1986). Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus & Robertson Publishers, London.
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 12723 specimens in 136 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 9453 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 478.5
  Temperature range (°C): 22.064 - 29.311
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.006 - 4.130
  Salinity (PPS): 33.070 - 40.360
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.163 - 5.074
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.044 - 0.570
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.523 - 6.986

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 478.5

Temperature range (°C): 22.064 - 29.311

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.006 - 4.130

Salinity (PPS): 33.070 - 40.360

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.163 - 5.074

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.044 - 0.570

Silicate (umol/l): 0.523 - 6.986
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:59Public Records:27
Specimens with Sequences:38Public Species:1
Specimens with Barcodes:35Public BINs:2
Species:7         
Species With Barcodes:2         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Montipora

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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Queensland Museum
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Museum of Tropical Queensland
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Wikipedia

Montipora

Montipora is a genus of small polyp stony coral in the phylum Cnidaria. Depending on the species and location, Montipora may grow as plates or ridges, appearing to some as a bowl or flower. Undisturbed, the plates expand radially and may encrust over surrounding rocks, shells or debris. These corals are extremely common on reefs in the Red Sea, the western Indian Ocean and the southern Pacific Ocean, appearing as far north as Hong Kong. There are seventy five known species.[3]

Description[edit]

Members in this genus are usually thin corals that form leafy, plate-like, encrusting or semi-massive colonies. The colours vary greatly. The calices are less than 2 mm in diameter and are usually well separated by the coenosteum. The skeleton is lacy, the walls are indistinct and the septa, when present are small and in 2 cycles. The columella is rarely developed and the corallites are inconspicuous and appear empty as the polyps are very small.[3]

Biology[edit]

Like other corals, Montipora corals are colonies of individuals, known as polyps, which are about 2 mm across and share tissue and a nerve net. The polyps can withdraw into the coral in response to movement or disturbance by possible predators, but slightly protrude when undisturbed. The polyps usually extend further at night to capture zooplankton from the water. These corals have zooxanthella, a symbiotic algae that lives inside the cells of the polyps and produce energy for the animals through photosynthesis.

Habitat[edit]

Montipora genus corals are most common in shallow reef environments with bright sunlight and moderate wave motion. Small reef fishes, such as the hawkfish live near Montipora colonies and perch on the ridges of the coral. Environmental destruction has led to a dwindling of populations of Montipora, along with other coral species. Unlike Acropora corals, Montiporas are more stress resistant, and not especially susceptible to coral bleaching when stressed.

In aquaria[edit]

Most Montipora corals are brown, pink, or green but variants with bright colors or having a ridge color with a high contrast to the core color, such as the rainbow and superman Montipora are more prized by aquarists. Captive propagation of Montipora corals is widespread in the reefkeeping community. Able to endure varied conditions, Montipora corals can be grown by enthusiasts without the use of metal halide lighting. In a well-lit reef aquarium, finger-sized fragments can grow into basketball-sized colonies in 2 to 3 years.

Species[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Register of Marine Species link: Montipora Blainville, 1830 (+species list)
  2. ^ "Montipora". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  3. ^ a b Classification of Scleractinian (Stony) Corals
  4. ^ a b c Hoover, John P (November 2007). Hawaiian Sea Creatures. Mutual Publishing. p. 54. ISBN 1-56647-220-2. 
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