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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults inhabit inshore coral and rocky reefs and in clear waters of lagoons (Ref. 9821). Pelagic and benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Occur singly or in small groups. Feed mainly on fishes, but also eat crustaceans. Individuals with brilliant yellow on head may be nuptial males (Ref. 9821). Often curious and approachable (Ref. 9710). Marketed fresh.
  • Anderson, W.D. Jr. and G.R. Allen 2001 Lutjanidae. Jobfishes. p. 2840-2918. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9821)
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Description

  Common names: jobfish (English), pargo (Espanol)
 
Aphareus furca (Lacepède, 1801)

Small-toothed jobfish



Elongate, fusiform body; head pointed; flattened between eyes; mouth not protractile, large, lower jaw projecting ; teeth minute, no canines; no teeth on roof of mouth; tail deeply forked with pointed tips; dorsal X, 10-11; anal III, 8;  last rays of dorsal and anal fins filamentous; pectoral long, 15-16 rays; lateral line scales 65-75; dorsal and anal scaleless.


Purplish-brown above, blue-grey below, a silver sheen over body;  edges of preopercle and opercle black.

        Size: 70 cm.

Habitat: inshore rocky and coral reefs.

Depth: 5-70 m.

        Indo-Pacific; resident at Cocos in the eastern Pacific; also at Malpelo Is.
   
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Distribution

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Island (s), Island (s) only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia. Reported from Cocos Island in the eastern Pacific (Ref. 9821).
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
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Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to northern Western Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga; Eastern Pacific: Cocos Island.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 5 (S) - 70 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 11; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
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Size

Length max (cm): 70.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 700 mm TL
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Max. size

70.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5484)); max. published weight: 906 g (Ref. 4887)
  • Anderson, W.D. Jr. 1986 Lutjanidae. (Genus Lutjanus by G.R. Allen). p. 572-579. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5484)
  • Honebrink, R. 1990 Fishing in Hawaii: a student manual. Education Program, Division of Aquatic Resources, Honolulu, Hawaii. 79 p. (Ref. 4887)
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Diagnostic Description

Description: Head and sides silvery sheen, dorsal purplish brown, ventral blue grey; preopercle and opercle margin dark brown; fins whitish to yellow-brown; nape bright yellow (may be present during courtship), caudal fin yellow (in small juveniles). Body slender, depth 3.0-3.5 in SL. Mouth large; lower jaw protruding; maxilla extending to below middle of the eye; interorbital space flattened. Dorsal scales parallel to LL. Dorsal and anal fins without scales. Pectoral fins long reaching to about level of anus. (Ref. 48635, 90105)
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
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Description

Inhabits inshore coral and rock reefs. Occurs solitarily or in small groups. Feeds mainly on fishes, but also eats crustaceans. Individuals with brilliant yellow on head may be nuptial males (Ref. 9821). Marketed fresh.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Type Information

Type for Aphareus furca
Catalog Number: USNM 49691
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission (USFC)
Locality: Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, United States, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 122 m (Ref. 9710)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 27 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 25 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 50000
  Temperature range (°C): 23.541 - 28.905
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.053 - 9.845
  Salinity (PPS): 33.754 - 35.274
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.591 - 4.953
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.076 - 0.831
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.912 - 10.063

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.5 - 50000

Temperature range (°C): 23.541 - 28.905

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.053 - 9.845

Salinity (PPS): 33.754 - 35.274

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.591 - 4.953

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.076 - 0.831

Silicate (umol/l): 0.912 - 10.063
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 1 - 122m.
From 1 to 122 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Blue smalltooth job.  (Lacepede, 1801) Attains 70 cm. Steel blue colour. Small ones occasionally with bright yellow patches on snout or head. Found in mid-waters of clear lagoons and seaward reefs in 1 to 120 m. Solitary or in small groups, feeds on small fishes and crustaceans. Often curious and approachable. East Africa to Panama, north to Ryuk, south to L.Howe & Austral Island.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Mid Water, Near Bottom, Water column only

Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Water column

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabit inshore coral and rocky reefs and in clear waters of lagoons. Occur singly or in small groups. Depth range 1-122 m (Ref. 58472). Feed mainly on fishes, but also eats crustaceans. Individuals with brilliant yellow on head may be nuptial males (Ref. 9821). Often curious and approachable (Ref. 9710). Attain 70 cm FL (Ref. 58472).
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: Pelagic crustacea, zooplankton, pelagic fish larvae, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Aphareus furca

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCTGGAATAGTAGGTACGGCCCTTAGCCTACTCATTCGGGCAGAGCTGAGCCAACCAGGCGCGCTTCTTGGAGACGACCAAATTTATAACGTAATCGTTACAGCCCACGCATTTGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATCGGCGGCTTTGGAAATTGACTGATCCCCCTAATGATTGGGGCTCCTGACATAGCATTCCCCCGAATAAATAATATGAGCTTTTGACTATTGCCCCCATCTTTTCTTCTTCTCCTTGCCTCTTCTGGCGTAGAAGCCGGGGCTGGGACTGGGTGAACAGTTTATCCCCCACTAGCGGGCAATCTAGCCCATGCAGGAGCATCCGTTGACCTCACCATCTTTTCTCTTCACTTAGCAGGTGTTTCTTCAATCCTGGGGGCAATTAACTTCATTACAACCATTATTAATATGAAACCTCCCGCTATTTCCCAATATCAGACACCCCTGTTTGTATGAGCTGTTCTAATTACCGCTGTGCTACTTCTTCTTTCACTTCCAGTTCTCGCTGCCGGGATTACAATACTTCTTACAGACCGAAATTTAAATACTACTTTCTTTGACCCGGCGGGAGGAGGAGATCCAATTCTTTATCAACACCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Aphareus furca

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
  • Honebrink, R. 1990 Fishing in Hawaii: a student manual. Education Program, Division of Aquatic Resources, Honolulu, Hawaii. 79 p. (Ref. 4887)
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