Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits organic and rocky reefs (Ref. 48669). Large individuals at depths of 10 m or more; juveniles in areas as shallow as tide pools (Ref. 48669). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 40849).
  • Rocha, L.A. and R.S. Rosa 2001 Halichoeres brasiliensis (Bloch, 1791), a valid wrasse species (Teleostei: Labridae) from Brazil, with notes on the Caribbean species Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758). J. Ichthyol. Aquat. Biol. 4(4):161-166. (Ref. 48669)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to Brazil, and is found from Maranhão to Santa Catarina, including Trindade Island (Menezes et al. 2003)
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Southwest Atlantic: Brazil and Trinidade I.
  • Rocha, L.A. and R.S. Rosa 2001 Halichoeres brasiliensis (Bloch, 1791), a valid wrasse species (Teleostei: Labridae) from Brazil, with notes on the Caribbean species Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758). J. Ichthyol. Aquat. Biol. 4(4):161-166. (Ref. 48669)
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Brazil.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 12
  • Rocha, L.A. and R.S. Rosa 2001 Halichoeres brasiliensis (Bloch, 1791), a valid wrasse species (Teleostei: Labridae) from Brazil, with notes on the Caribbean species Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758). J. Ichthyol. Aquat. Biol. 4(4):161-166. (Ref. 48669)
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Size

Max. size

39.5 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 48669))
  • Rocha, L.A. and R.S. Rosa 2001 Halichoeres brasiliensis (Bloch, 1791), a valid wrasse species (Teleostei: Labridae) from Brazil, with notes on the Caribbean species Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758). J. Ichthyol. Aquat. Biol. 4(4):161-166. (Ref. 48669)
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Diagnostic Description

Two pairs of enlarged canines in lower jaw; anterior lateral line scales with three pores per scales; body depth 3.3 to 4.2 in SL (Ref. 48669).
  • Rocha, L.A. and R.S. Rosa 2001 Halichoeres brasiliensis (Bloch, 1791), a valid wrasse species (Teleostei: Labridae) from Brazil, with notes on the Caribbean species Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758). J. Ichthyol. Aquat. Biol. 4(4):161-166. (Ref. 48669)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is reef associated and is found from one to 60 m. It inhabits biogenic and rocky reefs (Rocha and Rosa 2001). Large individuals are found at depths of 10 m or more, juveniles in areas as shallow as tide pools (Rocha and Rosa 2001). It feeds on benthic invertebrates (Gasparini and Floeter 2001).

There is very little known on the biology of this species.

The maximum size was recorded at 50 cm (TL) (C. Ferreira pers comm. 2009).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 35 m (Ref. 40849)
  • Gasparini, J.L. and S.R. Floeter 2001 The shore fishes of Trindade Island, western South Atlantic. J. Nat. Hist. 35:1639-1656. (Ref. 40849)
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Depth range based on 32 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2.25 - 29
  Temperature range (°C): 26.267 - 26.401
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.435 - 0.700
  Salinity (PPS): 37.020 - 37.169
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.691 - 4.731
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.099 - 0.137
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.514 - 2.580

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2.25 - 29

Temperature range (°C): 26.267 - 26.401

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.435 - 0.700

Salinity (PPS): 37.020 - 37.169

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.691 - 4.731

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.099 - 0.137

Silicate (umol/l): 1.514 - 2.580
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Rocha, L., Francini-Filho, R., Craig, M., Ferreira, B., Rodrigo L. Moura & Ferreira, C.E.

Reviewer/s
Liu, M. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and common throughout the Brazilian coast. However, it is intensively fished in both recreational and artisanal fisheries. Large individuals are uncommon in areas that are intensively fished, and are not often observed outside of reserves that enforce no-take zones. More research is needed to determine the impact of fisheries on this species, as current fishing activities may not be sustainable. It is listed as Data Deficient. This species should be reassessed when more fisheries and population data is available.
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Population

Population
Currently, population size/trends have not been assessed. This species is not present in FAO global production estimates. It is considered common. It is commonly caught by artisanal fisheries, and terminal "large" males are not often observed in areas of intensive fishing.

Aquarium trade data for Brazil show 310 individuals exported in 2007 (IBAMA 2007).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is intensively fished in artisanal fisheries, primarily by hook and line and spearfishing. It is taken in gillnets as part of the multi-species fisheries. This species is also important in sport fisheries, which may be a threat for many recreationally fished species (Lewin et al. 2006). It is not often observed outside of reserves which enforce no-take zones.
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Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present within several marine protected areas in Brazil. However, less than 5% of this species range is included within Brazil's no-take marine reserves.

More research is needed on the impact of recreational and artisanal fisheries on this species, as it is unknown if current fishing practices are sustainable.

It is recommended that MPAs are established within the species range, and legislation to regulate fisheries. Community management initiatives and awareness for managing artisanal fisheries is also needed.
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