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BiologyAdults are found on both shallow and deep sand flats among grass (Ref. 12342, 39154, 39155), inshore in saltwater creeks, rivers, bays, sounds (Ref. 39156), and deep channels within lagoons (Ref. 39155). Probably more dense over mud than shell or calcareous bottom (Ref. 39157). Also found in open ocean over continental shelf (Ref. 4639). A solitary (Ref. 26340) voracious predator that lurks in shallow bays and shore waters; burrows in bottom sediments. Juveniles are pelagic, and readily collected from open ocean, usually near land in vicinity of or in shallow water (Ref. 4639). Oviparous, newly hatched larvae are found near the surface at depths from 27 to 46 m (Ref. 39159). Salinity range 4.0-60.0 ppt (may include juveniles), more abundant above 10.0 ppt and 30.0 ppt (Ref. 39158, 39162, 39050). Commonly caught by anglers but considered a nuisance.