Overview

Brief Summary

The Black Margate, Anisotremus surinamensis, is a marine perciform fish in the grunt family (Haemulidae), also called the Thick Lipped Grunt, Surf Bream, or Black Bream.  It inhabits reefs in shallow subtropical waters off the Eastern Coast of the United States, from Florida through the Gulf of Mexico, the Carribean, and the Western Atlantic south to Brazil, hiding in caves, ledges and shipwrecks up to 20 meters deep.  Jordan and Warden (1898) indicated that it may also exist in the Galapagos, as  the most southern reaching gradation of species A. interruptus that is found to the North.  It has a silvery-colored, elliptical body, with a pointy snout and thick lips.  Young have black longitudinal stripes that fade away as they get older.  The Black Margate is a carnivore and feeds nocturnally on small fish, crustaceans, mollusks and echinoderms.  The genus Anisotremus contains 10 species that live in the eastern Pacific and western Atlantic, of which A. surinamensis is the largest, with a maximum total length of 76 cm, has the largest geographical range, and is found with a large variation of form.  The Black Margate has a long population doubling time and Fish Base ranks it as vulnerable to population decline.  It is sometimes caught and sold as a food fish, but carries some risk of Ciguatera poisoning in the Carribean.

(Bailly 2013; Jordan and Evermann 1898; Jordan and Evermann 1902; Olsen et al. 1984; Robins and Ray 1986)

  • Bailly, N. (2013). Anisotremus Gill, 1861. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=268319 on 2013-04-19
  • Jordan, D.S, B.W. Evermann, American food and game fishes: a popular account of all the species found in America north of the equator, with keys for ready identification, life histories and methods of capture. 1902. New York :Doubleday, Page & Co., page 530. Retrieved April 19, 2013 from biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8309079
  • Jordan, D.S, B.W. Evermann, 1898. The fishes of North and middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 1318-1319. Google eBook Retrieved April 19, 2013 from https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=_BVD1-7JZckC ensis&f=false
  • Olsen, D.A., D.W. Nellis and R.S. Wood, 1984. Ciguatera in the Eastern Caribbean. Mar. Fish. Rev. 46(1):13-18.
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.
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Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits larger patch reefs and quickly sloping rocky bottoms. Often near the shelter of caves, ledges, or wrecks (Ref. 9710). Feeds at night on crustaceans, mollusks, smaller fish, and the long-spined urchin, Diadema. Marketed fresh.
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Distribution

Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and the Bahamas through the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea to Brazil.
  • Courtenay, W.R. and H.F. Sahlman 1978 Pomadasyidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3798)
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Western Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 18; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
  • Uyeno, T., K. Matsuura and E. Fujii (eds.) 1983 Fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo, Japan. 519 p. (Ref. 13608)
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Size

Maximum size: 650 mm NG
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Max. size

76.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 5,780 g (Ref. 40637)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Front half of body darker than rear. Soft dorsal and anal fins have dense scales on bases of interradial membranes (Ref. 26938). Fins dusky, anal and pelvic fins darkest; peritoneum not black; young with two black stripes and a black spot at base of caudal fin (Ref. 13442).
  • Uyeno, T., K. Matsuura and E. Fujii (eds.) 1983 Fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo, Japan. 519 p. (Ref. 13608)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 9710), usually 0 - 15 m (Ref. 40849)
  • Gasparini, J.L. and S.R. Floeter 2001 The shore fishes of Trindade Island, western South Atlantic. J. Nat. Hist. 35:1639-1656. (Ref. 40849)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 64 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 16 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 57
  Temperature range (°C): 15.033 - 28.067
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.256 - 4.634
  Salinity (PPS): 31.427 - 36.487
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.502 - 5.718
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.076 - 0.841
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.557 - 11.021

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 57

Temperature range (°C): 15.033 - 28.067

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.256 - 4.634

Salinity (PPS): 31.427 - 36.487

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.502 - 5.718

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.076 - 0.841

Silicate (umol/l): 1.557 - 11.021
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 3 - 20m.
From 3 to 20 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits larger patch reefs and quickly sloping rocky bottoms. Often near the shelter of caves, ledges, or wrecks (Ref. 9710). Feeds at night on crustaceans, mollusks, smaller fish, and the long-spined urchin, Diadema. Carnivore (Ref. 57616).
  • Randall, J.E. 1967 Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. Stud. Trop. Oceanogr. Miami 5:665-847.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Anisotremus surinamensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGGGCTGGGATAGTAGGGACAGCCCTG---AGCCTTCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTCAGCCAACCGGGCGCCCTCCTCGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACGGCACACGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATCCTAATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTTGTTCCTCTAATG---ATCGGAGCCCCCGACATGGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCACCTTCCTTCCTCCTTCTCCTTGCCTCCTCAGGCGTAGAAGCCGGAGCCGGTACCGGGTGGACAGTCTACCCTCCCTTAGCCGGAAACCTAGCCCACGCCGGAGCATCTGTCGACCTA---ACAATTTTCTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATTCTTGGGGCAATTAACTTCATCACAACAATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCCATTTCCCAGTACCAAACCCCACTATTTGTATGATCGGTCCTGGTTACAGCCGTTCTTCTCCTACTTTCCCTGCCAGTTCTTGCAGCC---GGCATTACAATGCTTCTCACGGACCGAAATCTAAATACCACTTTCTTCGACCCTGCCGGAGGAGGTGACCCCATTCTCTACCAACACTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anisotremus surinamensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
  • Courtenay, W.R. and H.F. Sahlman 1978 Pomadasyidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3798)
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Wikipedia

Black margate

The black margate (Anisotremus surinamensis) is a species of grunt native to the western Atlantic Ocean from Florida and the Bahamas to Brazil and throughout the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. It can be found at depths from 0 to 20 m (0 to 66 ft), preferring steeply sloping rocky bottoms or reefs with nearby areas for shelter. This species can reach 76 cm (30 in) in TL, though most do not exceed 45 cm (18 in). The maximum recorded weight for this species is 5.8 kg (13 lb). It is important to commercial fisheries aas a food fish and is popular in public aquaria.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Anisotremus surinamensis" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
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