Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: soldierfish (English), candil (Espanol), soldado (Espanol)
 
Myripristis clarionensis Gilbert, 1897


Yellow soldierfish

Body ovate, deep; mouth moderately large, oblique; snout blunt, forehead convex; eye very large; no spine at corner of preopercle, which has a concave edge; opercle with one short spine, inner ridge of opercle and other head bones serrated; 30-34 gill rakers; dorsal fin with XI spines, continuous but deeply notched between last 2 spines, 13-15; anal with IV spines, 3rd  spine stoutest, it or 4th  longest, 11-12 rays; tail forked; scales large, very rough; lateral-line scales 40-47; 3.5 scale rows above lateral line.

Uniform yellowish red body and fins.


Size: 19 cm.

Habitat: rocky reef.

Depth: 5-50 m.

Restricted to the Revillagigedos Islands and Clipperton Atoll.
   
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the eastern tropical Pacific, and is only found near the Revillagigedo Islands and the Clipperton Atoll. Subpopulations of this species are highly localized in underwater reef-caves in these two locations, and its area of occupancy is therefore estimated to be less than 50 km2.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, TEP oceanic island (s) endemic, Multiple oceanic islands endemic, Island (s), Island (s) only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific: Revillagigedo Islands and Clipperton Island.
  • Schneider, W. and F. Krupp 1995 Holocentridae. Candiles. p. 1182-1185. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9307)
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Eastern Pacific: Revillagigedo and Clipperton islands.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 5 (S) - 50 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 19.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 183 mm TL
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Max. size

18.3 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9307))
  • Schneider, W. and F. Krupp 1995 Holocentridae. Candiles. p. 1182-1185. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9307)
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Type Information

Type for Myripristis clarionensis
Catalog Number: USNM 47746
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Year Collected: 1889
Locality: Clarion Island., Clarion Island, Mexico, Revillagigedo Islands, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Myripristis clarionensis is a reef-associated species that lives in underwater reef-caves at depths of 5-50 m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Planktivore

Diet: Pelagic crustacea, zooplankton, pelagic fish larvae
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Myripristis clarionensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
D2

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Moore, J.A., Allen, G.R. & Robertson, R.D.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.

Justification
Myripristis clarionensis has been assessed as Vulnerable under Criterion D2. This species is only known from two locations (Revillagigedo Islands and Clipperton Atoll), and can only be found in specific reef habitat. Major threats to this species are localized stochastic events and oceanographic environmental changes from ENSO events and global warming.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
Myripristis clarionensis was considered abundant in appropriate habitat in the Clipperton Atoll during surveys in 1994 and 1998, and in the Revillagigedo Islands from 1992 and 1994.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Subpopulations of Myripristis clarionensis are highly localized and only found in underwater reef-cave systems in two locations (Clipperton Atoll and Revillagigedos Islands). This species is therefore very susceptible to localized stochastic threats, including oceanographic environmental changes from ENSO or global warming events (Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004).
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Vulnerable (VU) (D2)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Myripristis clarionensis. However, a large percentage of the population is present a marine protected area in the eastern tropical Pacific region: the Archipelago de Revillagigedo Biosphere Reserve in Mexico (WDPA 2006).
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