Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits lower reaches of rivers (also found further upstream) in flowing or still water (Ref. 44894). Usually found in flowing streams among aquatic vegetation or branches of submerged trees. Juveniles often occur in swiftly flowing water or brackish estuaries. Tolerant of salinity levels equal to sea water, temperatures up to 35°C and pH 5.0-9.1 (Ref. 44894). Feeds on micro-crustaceans, mosquito larvae and algae. Spawning occurs during the warmer months, when males establish breeding territories and display their dazzling colours to attract a mate. The eggs adhere to rocks, sand or weeds and are guarded and fanned by the male until hatching, which occurs in 10-14 days (Ref. 44894). Smallest vertebrate eggs with max 0.32 mm length. Hatching larvae are about 1mm long.
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Distribution

Oceania: Australia and southern central New Guinea.
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Northern Australia and southern New Guinea.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 7; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8 - 9; Analspines: 1; Analsoft rays: 10 - 12
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Size

Maximum size: 100 mm SL
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Max. size

12.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894))
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater
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Migration

Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Usually found in flowing streams among aquatic vegetation or branches of submerged trees. Juveniles often occur in swiftly flowing water or brackish estuaries. Feeds on microcrustaceans, mosquito larvae and algae.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

The male sets up a territory on the bottom and entices the female to deposit up to 3,000 eggs on rocks, logs or plants. Male guards the nest throughout the incubation period of 10-14 hours.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hypseleotris compressa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hypseleotris compressa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Hypseleotris compressa

Hypseleotris compressa, commonly known as the empire gudgeon, is a species of gudgeon endemic to Australia and Papua New Guinea. It can be up to 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long, the males being larger than the females. The fish has omnivorous feeding habits. During the breeding season, the male's colour becomes much brighter than usual, which is used to attract a mate. When the fish spawns during the warm part of the year, up to 3,000 eggs are laid by the female. Their eggs hatch after 10–14 days.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The Hypseleotris compressa population is mostly concentrated in the northern and eastern portions of Australia[3] and southern Papua New Guinea.[4] It has also been found in the Torres Strait, around Muralag and Horn Island.[5]

The fish is most commonly found in freshwater flowing rivers or streams,[3][5] but is also found in still water.[3][4] It is usually found in the lower reaches of rivers, but can also live upstream.[3][5] It swims amongst aquatic plants and branches,[4][6] and sometimes hides among rocks, using them as "caves".[3]

Description[edit]

Hypseleotris compressa has an elongate body which can be up to 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long.[3] The males are larger than the females.[6] The fish does not have a lateral line. It has ctenoid scales.[5]

Its color varies, but the fish generally has a yellowish-tan to golden-brown head, although it can occasionally be a dark brown.[3] Its abdomen is usually a whitish-red color.[3][7] During the off-breeding seasons, males can be identified by prominent variously colored bands on their anal and dorsal fins. The caudal fin is a "dusky" colour, and the pectoral and pelvic fins have no colour.[3] During the breeding season, the male's colors brighten significantly, turning a red-orange colour, and it sometimes appears to glow.[3][7] The male fish uses its colours to attract a mate.[4] The species can quickly change its shade of color if needed.[3]

Behaviour[edit]

The fish is omnivorous, consuming small crustaceans and insects, insect larvae, algae, and aquatic plants.[5][6]

Spawning usually occurs in freshwater during warm weather; the breeding season generally spans from spring to autumn. After spawning with the male, the female fish lays rows of adhesive eggs totaling about 3,000 eggs. The eggs stick to various surfaces, such as plants, logs, rocks, or sand. The male then fertilizes the eggs with "sperm lines". The male guards the eggs until the young fish hatch, which usually takes 10–14 days. After hatching, the young fish go downstream to estuaries, where their development takes place. Once grown, the fish returns to freshwater.[3][4][5]

A controlled study comparing six native fish species with the introduced (and invasive) eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) on consuming larvae of the common banded mosquito (Culex annulirostris) in Brisbane found that the empire gudgeon was as efficient at eating mosquito larvae as the eastern mosquitofish and is a good candidate for mosquito control.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Hypseleotris compressa" in FishBase. November 2014 version.
  2. ^ "Hypseleotris compressa (Krefft, 1864)". GBIF.org. Retrieved 18 February 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Action Statement: Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988". depi.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Comprehensive Description". eol.org. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Empire Gudgeon, Hypseleotris compressa (Krefft 1864)". fishesofaustralia.net.au. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c "Hypseleotris compressa". www-public.jcu.edu.au. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "Empire Gudgeon, Hypseleotris compressa (Krefft, 1864)". australianmuseum.net.au. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  8. ^ Hurst, Timothy P.; Brown, Michael D.; Kay, Brian H. (2004). "Laboratory evaluation of the predation efficacy of native Australian fish on Culex annulirostris (Diptera: Culicidae).". Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 20 (3): 286–91. PMID 15532929. 
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