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BiologyEndemic in coastal areas, rivers and estuaries of Australia. Most abundant in river mouths and estuaries (Ref. 28468, 28472). Inhabit brackish waters of coastal rivers and lakes, occasionally penetrating fresh water (Ref. 44894). Considered as the only true estuarine sparid in Australia. Larvae and small juveniles are most abundant over seagrass beds in shallow estuarine waters (Ref. 28468, 28472). Spawning period varies considerably between estuaries (Ref. 28468). Remain upstream in sheltered waters to spawn and is not usually found in purely marine habitats (Ref. 44894). Feed on shellfish, worms, crustaceans, small fish and algae. Sold as whole, chilled products in domestic markets (Ref. 6390). One of top angling species in southern Australia (Ref. 6390, 44894), as well as being a delicious table fish (Ref. 2156).