Overview

Comprehensive Description

The Roundnose Grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris) reaches a maximum length of about a meter. Its body is plump with large, spiny scales and a short, broad snout. This is a demersal species (i.e., living at or near the sea bottom) and is found at depths of 100 to 800 meters. (Muus 1974) This fish, which may live more than 50 years, is one of the main target species of deep-water fisheries in the northeast Atlantic. (Lorance et al. 2008)

Bergstad et al. (2010) studied the feeding ecology of the Roundnose Grenadier on the northern mid-Atlantic Ridge. The ecology of this species has been relatively well studied in continental slope waters of the North Atlantic, but not on the mid-Atlantic Ridge. Bergstad et al. found that the diet consisted mainly of cephalopods, pelagic shrimps, and fish. Pelagic and benthopelagic copepods were the most numerous prey, but did not contribute much on a weight basis. Cephalopods were by far the most important prey of the small grenadiers, while shrimps and fish became increasingly significant with increasing size. Cephalopods appeared to be more important food items in this study than in previous investigations.

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Biology

Benthopelagic to bathypelagic in about 400 and 1200 m depth. Minimum depth from Ref. 1371. Form large schools at 600 to 900 m depth (Ref. 9988). Feed on a variety of fish and invertebrates, but primarily on pelagic crustaceans such as shrimps, amphipods and cumaceans; cephalopods and lantern fishes constitute a lesser portion of the diet. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). This species is currently facing overexploitation in the North Atlantic. Utilized frozen and for fishmeal; can be fried and baked (Ref. 9988).
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Description

 Coryphaenoides rupestris is a member of the rattail family. Rattails, also known as grenadiers, resemble a large tadpole by having a characteristically large and broad head and a body that rapidly tapers into a moderately long thin whip-like tail. It has one small dorsal fin and a long continuous ventral fin. The roundnose grenadier reaches up to 1.1 m. It has a broad rounded snout with a large blunt knob-like scute at its tip. It has very large eyes but a small mouth. A small barbel is present on the chin. The body is brownish-grey in colour.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Western North Atlantic from Davis Strait, along the coast of Labrador, off Newfoundland, and the Grand Bank southward to Cape Hatteras, NC.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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North Atlantic: from about 37°N to Baffin Island and Greenland in the western Atlantic, and off Iceland and Norway south to North Africa in the eastern Atlantic. Reported to occur from the tongue of the Ocean east of Andros Islands (about 24°N, 77°W) in the Bahamas.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 2; Analspines: 0
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Size

Maximum size: 1000 mm TL
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Max. size

110 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388)); max. published weight: 1,690 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 54 years (Ref. 41452)
  • Allain, V. and P. Lorance 2000 Age estimation and growth of some deep-sea fish from the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Cybium 24(3) Suppl.:7-16. (Ref. 41452)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
  • Muus, B.J. and J.G. Nielsen 1999 Sea fish. Scandinavian Fishing Year Book, Hedehusene, Denmark. 340 p. (Ref. 35388)
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Diagnostic Description

Head broad, rather soft; snout broad, rounded, with a large blunt tubercular scute at its tip; chin with small barbel. Scales relatively adherent; spinules dense on body scales, long, thin and recurved, narrowly lanceolate, with longitudinal anterior concavity. Pyloric caeca 29 to 31, long and slender. Color medium brown to grayish; orbits, oral and branchial cavities, and fins blackish to brownish gray.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Found at depths of 400- 1200 m.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

bathypelagic; marine; depth range 180 - 2600 m (Ref. 58426), usually 400 - 1200 m (Ref. 1371)
  • Coad, B.W. and J.D. Reist 2004 Annotated list of the arctic marine fishes of Canada. Can. MS Rep. Fish Aquat. Sci. 2674:iv:+112 p. (Ref. 58426)
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Depth range based on 1249 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 746 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 80000
  Temperature range (°C): 0.279 - 11.202
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.286 - 26.300
  Salinity (PPS): 31.635 - 35.960
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.207 - 7.030
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.273 - 1.829
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.963 - 35.245

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 80000

Temperature range (°C): 0.279 - 11.202

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.286 - 26.300

Salinity (PPS): 31.635 - 35.960

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.207 - 7.030

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.273 - 1.829

Silicate (umol/l): 1.963 - 35.245
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 The roundnose grenadier is a demersal and bathypelagis species inhabiting continental shelf and slope waters from a depth of 180 m to more than 2000 m.
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Depth: 180 - 2200m.
From 180 to 2200 meters.

Habitat: bathypelagic. Found most commonly between 400 and 1200 m depth. Forms large schools at 600 to 900 m depth (Ref. 9988). Feeds on a variety of fish and invertebrates, but primarily on pelagic crustaceans such as shrimps, amphipods and cumaceans; cephalopods and lantern fishes constitute a lesser portion of the diet. It is currently facing overexploitation in the North Atlantic. Utilized frozen and for fishmeal; can be fried and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Benthopelagic to bathypelagic in about 400 and 1200 m depth. Form large schools at 600 to 900 m depth (Ref. 9988). Feed on a variety of fish and invertebrates, but primarily on pelagic crustaceans such as shrimps, amphipods and cumaceans; cephalopods and lantern fishes constitute a lesser portion of the diet. This species is currently facing overexploitation in the North Atlantic (Ref. 1371). Adults are preyed upon by whales and Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides); young fish by redfish and other species. Parasites of the species include 5 myxosporidians, 1 monogenean, 3 cestodes, 7 trematodes (like Dolichoenterum sp. and Gonocerca crassa), 3 nematodes and 2 crustaceans (Ref. 5951).
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds mainly on shrimps, amphipods, cephalopods and lantern fishes
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Coryphaenoides rupestris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
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Wikipedia

Coryphaenoides rupestris

Coryphaenoides rupestris is a species of marine ray-finned fish in the family Macrouridae. Its common names include the rock grenadier, the roundnose grenadier and the roundhead rat-tail. In France it is known as Grenadier de roche and in Spain as Granadero de roca. It is a large, deep water species and is fished commercially in the northern Atlantic Ocean.

Contents

Description

The roundnose grenadier is a deep water fish sometimes reaching over a metre (yard) in length. The rounded head is large with a broad snout, the abdomen small and the tail long and tapering to a pointed tip. At the front of the snout there is a blunt, tube-like scute or scale and there is a small barbel under the chin. There are three rows of small teeth at the front of the mouth but only one row at the back. The scales on the body are densely packed and covered with small spines. The dorsal fin has two spines and 8 to 11 soft rays and the pelvic fin has 7 to 8 soft rays, the outer one of which is greatly elongated. The general body colour is brownish-grey but the inside of the mouth, the orbits round the eyes, the gill cavities and the fins are dark brownish black.[2][3]

Distribution

The roundnose grenadier is found in the northern Atlantic Ocean at depths between 400 and 1,200 m (1,300 and 3,900 ft) and occasionally at much greater depths. It tends to spend the summer in deep waters and the winter in shallower locations. Its range normally extends from Baffin Island, Greenland, Iceland and Norway south to the New England Seamount chain and North Africa.[2][4] It is found on continental shelves and in the vicinity of seamounts and knolls.[1]

Biology

The roundnose grenadier sometimes forms dense shoals at depths of about 600 to 900 metres (2,000 to 3,000 ft).[3] It makes a daily vertical migration, returning later to the seabed where it feeds on small invertebrates including shrimps, amphipods and cumaceans, and to a lesser extent, cephalopods and various fishes, including lanternfishes.[2] The roundnose grenadier is a batch spawner [2] and is believed to migrate to the vicinity of Iceland to spawn in late summer or autumn.[3] The females reach maturity when they are nine to eleven years old and the males when they are rather younger.[5] Up to 35,000 eggs can be produced at a time.[3]

Fishery

Commercial fishing for the roundnose grenadier started in the 1960s. The former USSR, Poland, and the German Democratic Republic were the main countries involved, sending factory ships to undertake midwater trawls in the Atlantic Ocean. Catches peaked at over 80,000 tonnes (88,000 short tons) in 1971. More recently, French and Spanish vessels have predominated and the total annual catch has been under 20,000 tonnes (22,000 short tons) in most years since 1980.[3] The flesh of the fish is white with a pleasant texture and is sold as seafood.[3] In 2010 in the United Kingdom, the roundnose grenadier was listed as a "UK Priority Species" for conservation purposes on the grounds that it is a long-lived fish taking many years to mature and that numbers were declining. It was suggested that if no actions to conserve the fish were taken, it would become extinct within the next 10 years.[6]

References

  1. ^ a b c Bailly, Nicolas (2011). "Coryphaenoides rupestris Gunnerus, 1765". In Nicolas Bailly. FishBase. World Register of Marine Species. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=158960. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
  2. ^ a b c d Coryphaenoides rupestris Gunnerus, 1765 FishBase. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Species fact sheet: Coryphaenoides rupestris (Gunnerus, 1765) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 2012-05-04
  4. ^ Moore, J.A.; Vecchione, M.; Collette, B. B.; Gibbons, R.; Hartel, K. E.; Galbraithe, J. K.; Turnipseed, M.; Southworth, M.; Watkins, E. (2003). "Biodiversity of Bear Seamount, New England Seamount Chain: Results of exploratory trawling". Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 31: 363–372. http://journal.nafo.int/J31/session1/moore.pdf.
  5. ^ Kelly, C. J.;Connolly, P. L.; Bracken, J. J. (1997). "Age estimation, growth, maturity and distribution of the roundnose grenadier from the Rockall trough". Journal of Fish Biology 50 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1997.tb01336.x. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1997.tb01336.x/abstract.
  6. ^ UK Priority Species: Coryphaenoides rupestris Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
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