Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Known specimens are less than 5.5 cm SL (Ref. 4054).
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References

Baird RC. 1971. The Systematics, Distribution, and Zoogeography of the Marine Hatchetfishes (family Sternoptychidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zooology 142(1):1–128.

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Data on Catalog of Fishes

View data on Catalog of Fishes here.

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Type locality

Zanzibar area [Tanzania, Western Indian Ocean], depth 640-658 meters.

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Type specimen(s)

Holotype: BMNH 1939.5.24.403.

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Main Reference

Baird RC. 1971. The Systematics, Distribution, and Zoogeography of the Marine Hatchetfishes (family Sternoptychidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zooology 142(1):1–128.

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Description

Dorsal-fin rays 13–14; anal-fin rays 15–16 (rarely 17); pectoral-fin rays (rarely 12) 13–14; total gill rakers 20–21 (rarely 22); vertebrae 33–34. Largest specimen less than 55 mm SL; trunk tapering to long caudal peduncle; post-temporal spine long, thin, its length greater than one-half the diameter of orbit; basal post-temporal spine short; preopercle spine long, curving anteriorly; frontal ridges minutely spinose; abdominal keel scales do not extend below ventral body margin, these scales with multiple spines; subcaudal scales spinose; supraabdominal photophores in step-like arrangement with first photophore raised substantially above second; supra-anal photophores not well separated from anals; jaws large; teeth minute; underside of lower jaw smooth to slightly spinose; gill rakers short to moderate with rough spinose internal surfaces; pigment in preservative dark dorsally and dark above anal photophores, dark pigment bar extends to midline; pigment in myomerelike striations on trunk, with definite pigment spots along posterior midline.

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Distribution

Western Indian Ocean: known only from the east African coast.
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Known from three localities in the Indian Ocean along the east African coast from the equator to 30°S.

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Western Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden to Natal (South Africa), east to Réunion (western Mascarenes).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 14; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 15 - 17
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Size

Maximum size: 60 mm SL
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Max. size

6.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 26382))
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To about 55 mm SL.

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Diagnostic Description

Post-temporal spine complex, bearing one or two basal supplementary spines; dorso-lateral edge of fused, post-temporal-supracleithrum serrate; abdominal keel scales with spiny ventral surfaces; supra-anal photophore group usually not distinctly separated anal group. Post-temporal spine with a single distinct basal spine; anal-subcaudal distance greater than one-half of the length of the subcauclal group ; anal photophore number 6 to 9. Abdominal keel scales rectangular, with many small ventral spines; post-temporal spine long and smooth or short and spinose dorsally only; first supra-anal photophore about even with or raised above third; anal photophores 8 to 9. Ventral margin of subcauclal photophores with spines (adults); anal-subcaudal photophore distance less than three-fourths length of subcaudal group; first supra-anal photophore higher than the last; post-temporal spine long, greater than one-half diameter of orbit.

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Type Information

Paratype for Polyipnus indicus
Catalog Number: USNM 179897
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Zanzibar Area, Zanzibar, Tanzania, Indian
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

benthopelagic; marine; depth range 50 - 500 m (Ref. 4054)
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Depth range based on 52 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 32 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 277 - 781.5
  Temperature range (°C): 4.456 - 13.610
  Nitrate (umol/L): 12.029 - 31.805
  Salinity (PPS): 34.336 - 35.093
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.727 - 4.928
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.894 - 2.181
  Silicate (umol/l): 5.815 - 38.623

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 277 - 781.5

Temperature range (°C): 4.456 - 13.610

Nitrate (umol/L): 12.029 - 31.805

Salinity (PPS): 34.336 - 35.093

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.727 - 4.928

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.894 - 2.181

Silicate (umol/l): 5.815 - 38.623
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 50 - 500m.
From 50 to 500 meters.

Habitat: benthopelagic. Mesopelagic. Known specimens are less than 5.5 cm SL.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Polyipnus indicus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Polyipnus indicus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
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