Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: drum (English), verrugato (Espanol)
 
Umbrina galapagorum Steindachner, 1878


Galapagos drum



Body oblong, somewhat compressed, lower profile ~ horizontal; back smoothly arched; head low, broad, conical; snout < eye; mouth ~ horizontal, under projecting snout; chin with 1 short, thick rigid barbel with a pore at its tip, and 2 pairs of pores beside its base; teeth in bands on each jaw, outer row on top jaw larger; 16-20 gill rakers; preopercle finely serrated; dorsal fin with a deep notch, X + I, 26-30, spines slender, second dorsal long base; anal small, II, 6-7 rays, 2nd  spine thick, ¾ length of 1st  ray; pectoral short, not reaching tip of pelvic, 16-18 rays; tail edge straight to slightly concave the upper rays elongated; scales rough on head and body, smooth on fins; bases of soft dorsal and anal fins with scaly sheath; lateral line scales 50-53.



Silvery grey, yellowish below; faint oblique dark lines following scale rows ; fins pale to slightly dusky; inner lining of gill cover pale to very dark.


Size: to at least 45 cm.

Inhabits sandy bays.


Depth: 1-20 m.

The Galapagos Islands, rare at Cocos Is
   
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Biology

Inhabits rocky or sandy coasts and in bays, from near the shore to a depth of at least 18 m (Ref. 9118). Considered a good food fish (Ref. 9118).
  • Chao, L.N. 1995 Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9118&speccode=13985 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found only in the Cocos and the Galápagos Islands.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, TEP oceanic island (s) endemic, Galapagos Islands endemic, Island (s), Island (s) only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Southeast Pacific: Galapagos Islands.
  • Chao, L.N. 1995 Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9118&speccode=13985 External link.
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Galápagos Islands.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 20 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 45.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 450 mm TL
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Max. size

45.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9118))
  • Chao, L.N. 1995 Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9118&speccode=13985 External link.
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Type Information

Paratype for Umbrina galapagorum
Catalog Number: USNM 153626
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1872
Locality: Galapagos: Charles Island, Charles Island (Floreana or Santa Maria), Galapagos Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype:
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Cotype for Umbrina galapagorum
Catalog Number: USNM 120437
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1872
Locality: Galapagos Archipelago, Galapagos Islands, Pacific
  • Cotype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This benthopelagic species inhabits rocky shore and reefs to a depth of at least 18 m. It is a carnivore, feeding on mobile benthic crustaceans, worms and gastropods.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

benthopelagic; marine; depth range ? - 18 m (Ref. 9118)
  • Chao, L.N. 1995 Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9118&speccode=13985 External link.
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5.5 - 5.5
  Temperature range (°C): 22.344 - 22.344
  Nitrate (umol/L): 6.523 - 6.523
  Salinity (PPS): 34.632 - 34.632
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.215 - 4.215
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.824 - 0.824
  Silicate (umol/l): 5.791 - 5.791
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 18m.
Recorded at 18 meters.

Habitat: benthopelagic. Inhabits rocky or sandy coasts and in bays, from near the shore to a depth of at least 18 m. Good foodfish.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Umbrina galapagorum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
D2

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Chao, L. & Espinosa, H.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is only known from two locations (Galápagos and Cocos Islands). Regional experts support the plausible threat of the increased duration and frequency of ENSO events that can cause severe and rapid declines for restricted-range, shallow-water species in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. This species is listed as Vulnerable under Criterion D2.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
No population information is available for this species. A recent survey made in different sites at Galápagos archipelago (Edgar et al. 2004) did not report this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events that result in shallow waters that are too warm and nutrient poor for extended periods of time (Grove 1985, Guzmán and Cortés 1992, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (e.g. the up-welling zone off the coast of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica and the offshore islands) appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). Given this species' restricted distribution and shallow water habitat, oceanographic environmental changes, such as those associated with future ENSO events, may have detrimental effects on the survival of this species.
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Vulnerable (VU) (D2)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution falls entirely within the Marine Protected Area of the Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Chao, L.N. 1995 Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9118&speccode=13985 External link.
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