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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits mud and sand bottoms (Ref. 9824). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on small benthic animals. Marketed fresh, sometimes dried-salted (Ref. 9824).
  • Hensley, D.A. and K. Amaoka 2001 Bothidae. Lefteye flounders. p. 3799-3841. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9824)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9824&speccode=10585 External link.
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Distribution

Pacific Ocean: New Caledonia, southern Japan, and the Hawaiian Islands (Ref. 9824); including the Norfolk Ridge and Isle of Matthew (Ref. 28982).
  • Hensley, D.A. and K. Amaoka 2001 Bothidae. Lefteye flounders. p. 3799-3841. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9824)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9824&speccode=10585 External link.
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Western and Central Pacific: South China Sea to southern Japan and Kyushu-Palau Ridge; New Caledonia; Hawaiian Islands.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 106 - 117; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 87 - 95; Vertebrae: 32 - 33
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Size

Maximum size: 225 mm SL
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Max. size

22.5 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9824))
  • Hensley, D.A. and K. Amaoka 2001 Bothidae. Lefteye flounders. p. 3799-3841. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9824)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9824&speccode=10585 External link.
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Diagnostic Description

Body elliptical, its depth contained more than 2.4 times in SL. Tip of isthmus below posterior margin of lower eye. Eyes separated by a broad and concave space. Interorbital in male broader than that in female. Ctenoid scales on ocular side armed with a row of hairlike spines. Small dark blotches on origin of straight part of lateral line. Small dark dots along upper margin of upper eye.
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Type Information

Type for Parabothus coarctatus
Catalog Number: USNM 51602
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: South Coast of Oahu Island. Honolulu Light, N. 2 degrees, E. 2.4', Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
Depth (m): 386
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type:
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Paratype for Parabothus coarctatus
Catalog Number: USNM 51694
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 253 - 580 m (Ref. 28982)
  • Amaoka, K., E. Mihara and J. Rivaton 1997 Pisces, Pleuronectiformes: Flatfishes from the waters around New Caledonia. Six species of the bothid genera Tosarhombus and Parabothus. p.144-171. In B. Séret (ed.) Résultats des Campagnes MUSORTOM,17, Mém. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat. 174, 212p. (Ref. 28982)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=28982&speccode=15585 External link.
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Depth range based on 46 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 45 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 179.5 - 540
  Temperature range (°C): 11.203 - 18.228
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.890 - 16.494
  Salinity (PPS): 34.549 - 35.557
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.238 - 4.465
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.316 - 1.249
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.657 - 10.591

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 179.5 - 540

Temperature range (°C): 11.203 - 18.228

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.890 - 16.494

Salinity (PPS): 34.549 - 35.557

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.238 - 4.465

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.316 - 1.249

Silicate (umol/l): 2.657 - 10.591
 
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Depth: 253 - 580m.
From 253 to 580 meters.

Habitat: bathydemersal.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits mud and sand bottoms. Feeds on small benthic animals.
  • Hensley, D.A. and K. Amaoka 2001 Bothidae. Lefteye flounders. p. 3799-3841. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9824)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9824&speccode=10585 External link.
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Hensley, D.A. and K. Amaoka 2001 Bothidae. Lefteye flounders. p. 3799-3841. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9824)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9824&speccode=10585 External link.
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