Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Often caught pelagically (Ref. 4705). Adults prefer bottom temperatures of -0.5°C to 6.0°C (Ref. 5951). Epibenthic (Ref. 58426). Feed on crustaceans, fishes (Ref. 4705, 6885), eelpouts, capelin, redfishes, deep sea prawns and other bottom invertebrates (Ref. 35388). Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Utilized dried or salted and frozen; can be steamed and fried (Ref. 9988). Size of the Greenland halibut collected from 400-599 m deep in eastern Bering Sea, ranged from 9 to 99 cm FL with a mean of 56 cm (Ref. 55110).
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Description

 Reinhardtius hippoglossoides is a right-handed flatfish, which means it lies on its left side, with its eyes on its right side, and its abdomen at its right edge. It is either yellowish or grayish-brown and visibly paler below than above. It has a notably large mouth. Like all members of the halibut group it has a slightly concave tail and symmetrical ventral fins. It can be differentiated by its lateral line, which is nearly straight abreast of the pectoral fin, and by the smooth aspect of its ventral fins.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Labrador to Gulf of Maine, as strays only in the southern part of its range
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Circumglobal: In arctic and temperate waters; northern hemisphere. Sea of Japan off Honshu north to Shishmaref, Alaska in the Chukchi Sea, throughout the Aleutian Islands, and southeast to northern Baja California, Mexico. North Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Spitsbergen (Svalbard Islands) and the Barents Sea south to Ireland. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951).
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Arctic. North Pacific: Sea of Japan off Honshu north to Shishmaref, Alaska in the Chukchi Sea, throughout the Aleutian Is., and south to northern Baja California, Mexico. North Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Stitsbergen (Svalbard Is.) and the Barents Sea south to Ireland.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Nielsen, J. G., 1986; Muus, B. J. and J. G. Nielsen, 1999; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984; Hart, J. L., 1973.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 83 - 108; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 62 - 79; Vertebrae: 60 - 64
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Size

Maximum size: 800 mm TL
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Max. size

80.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 56370)); 130 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 7,000 g (Ref. 173); max. published weight: 45 kg; max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 3561)
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to 120 cm TL (female); max. weight: 45 kg.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Nielsen, J. G., 1986; Muus, B. J. and J. G. Nielsen, 1999; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984; Hart, J. L., 1973.
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Diagnostic Description

Dorsal origin behind posterior edge of upper eye. Caudal slightly forked to truncate. Pectorals small.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Bottom dweller, found to depths of 2000 m, migrate between spawning and feeding grounds.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 1 - 2000 m (Ref. 6793), usually 500 - 1000 m (Ref. 6263)
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Depth range based on 16710 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 12637 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 1485
  Temperature range (°C): -2.072 - 12.704
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.529 - 42.978
  Salinity (PPS): 30.653 - 35.639
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.672 - 8.282
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.492 - 3.188
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.913 - 139.973

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 1485

Temperature range (°C): -2.072 - 12.704

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.529 - 42.978

Salinity (PPS): 30.653 - 35.639

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.672 - 8.282

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.492 - 3.188

Silicate (umol/l): 2.913 - 139.973
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 A truly marine and benthopelagic species, which may be found down to a depth of 2000 m.
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Depth: 15 - 2000m.
From 15 to 2000 meters.

Habitat: benthopelagic. Prefers depths of 500-1,000 m and temperatures of 0-4°C (Ref. 6263). Unlike most flatfish this species does not remain on the bottom, but swims more normally with its back (and not its side) upwards. Often caught pelagically. Feeds on prawns and fishes. Utilized dried/salted and frozen; can be steamed and fried (Ref. 9988).
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Benthopelagic; pelagic; marine; depth range 1 - 2000 m.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Nielsen, J. G., 1986; Muus, B. J. and J. G. Nielsen, 1999; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984; Hart, J. L., 1973.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Often caught pelagically (Ref. 4705). Feeds on crustaceans (Ref. 4705, 6885), eelpouts, capelin, redfishes, deep sea prawns and other bottom invertebrates (Ref. 35388). Food also includes Atlantic cod, polar cod, young Greenland halibut, roundnose grenadier, barracudinas, sand lance and cephalopods (Ref. 5951). Greenland halibut
  • Bowering, W.R. and G.R. Lilly 1992 Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) off southern Labrador and northeastern Newfoundland (northwest Atlantic) feed primarily on capelin (Mallotus villosus). Neth. J. Sea Res. 29(1/3):211-222.   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=6394 External link.
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Crustaceans, fishes , eelpouts, capelin, redfishes, deep sea prawns and other bottom invertebrates.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Nielsen, J. G., 1986; Muus, B. J. and J. G. Nielsen, 1999; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984; Hart, J. L., 1973.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on crustaceans, eelpouts, capelin, redfishes, deep sea prawns
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

Spawns in April-July at 3-5 °C.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Nielsen, J. G., 1986; Muus, B. J. and J. G. Nielsen, 1999; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984; Hart, J. L., 1973.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Reinhardtius hippoglossoides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 29
Specimens with Barcodes: 56
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Reinhardtius hippoglossoides

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 13 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGTTGATTTTTCTCGACCAATCACAAAGACATCGGCACCCTCTATCTCGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGTATAGTGGGAACAGGCCTA---AGTCTGCTTATTCGGGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCTGGGGCTCTCCTTGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTATAACGTAATCGTCACCGCACACGCCTTTGTAATAATCTTTTTTATAGTAATACCCATTATGATCGGGGGTTTCGGAAACTGGCTTATTCCACTAATA---ATTGGAGCCCCAGATATGGCTTTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATGAGTTTCTGACTTCTTCCCCCATCCTTTCTTCTCCTCTTAGCCTCTTCAGGTGTTGAAGCTGGGGCAGGTACGGGGTGAACCGTTTATCCACCACTAGCTGGTAATCTGGCCCACGCCGGAGCATCCGTTGACCTA---ACAATCTTCTCACTTCACCTTGCAGGGATTTCGTCAATTCTGGGGGCAATTAACTTTATTACTACCATCATCAACATGAAACCCACAACAGTTACTATGTACCAAATCCCATTATTTGTTTGAGCCGTTCTAATTACCGCCGTACTTCTTCTTCTGTCCCTTCCCGTCTTAGCCGCA---GGGATTACAATGCTACTAACAGACCGCAACCTCAACACAACCTTTTTTGACCCCGCCGGAGGTGGTGACCCCATCCTCTATCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAGGTATATATTCTCATTCTTCCAGGCTTCGGAATAATTTCCCACATTGTTGCATACTATGCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCTTTTGGTTACATAGGAATAGTCTGAGCTATAATAGCCATTGGACTCCTGGGATTCATTGTATGGGCCCATCACATGTTTACAGTCGGGATAGACGTCGACACACGAGCCTACTTTACATCTGCCACAATAATCATTGCAATCCCGACCGGCGTAAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTC---GCAACCCTCCACGGGGGA---AGCATCAAATGAGAAACACCACTTCTTTGGGCCCTCGGCTTTATTTTCCTCTTTACAGTAGGCGGTCTTACTGGCATTGTCTTGGCTAACTCCTCTCTTGACATTGTTCTGCATGACACATACTATGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTATGTA---CTATCTATGGGTGCTGTATTCGCAATCGTTGCCGCCTTCGTCCACTGATTCCCACTATTTACAGGTTATACCCTCCACTCCACATGAACAAAAATCCACTTCGGCCTGATATTTATTGGGGTCAATCTAACGTTCTTCCCCCAACACTTCCTGGGCCTAGCCGGAATGCCCCGA---CGATACTCAGACTACCCAGACGCATATACC---CTATGAAACACTGTCTCATCAATCGGATCCCTAATGTCGCTCGTCGCTGTAATCTTATTTTTGTTCATTATTTGAGAAGCATTTACAGCCAAACGAGAAGTT---GGGGCAGTAGAACTTACTGCAACTAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Wikipedia

Greenland halibut

The Greenland halibut or Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) belongs to the Pleuronectidae family (the right eye flounders), and is the only species of the genus Reinhardtius. It is a deepwater fish distributed mostly from 200 to 1600 m, but has been caught in shallower depths and at more than 2,200 m (7,200 ft). It is mainly found in waters with temperatures from 1-4 °C, but has also observed at sub-zero temperatures down to -2.1 °C. It has a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere and is found in both the North Atlantic and the North Pacific oceans.

Its morphology with the left eye positioned on the dorsal ridge of the forehead gives it an appearance of a cyclops when looking straight at it. The central position of the left eye in the Greenland halibut probably gives it a much wider range of peripheral vision in comparison to other flatfish where the eye has migrated completely. The body shape is elongated and compressed dorsal-ventrally and muscles on both sides are equally developed. Both sides are pigmented; however the left blind side is slightly lighter in color than the right side.

Its physical appearance suggests it to be a vigorous swimmer that can swim in a vertical position. Vertical swimming has been observed during tagging experiments. However, video analyzing of Greenland halibut behavior in front of a bottom trawl showed no sign of swimming in a vertical position. Even though most Greenland halibut are caught in bottom fishing gears (trawl, longline and gillnet) they have also been caught in surface drift nets which indicates that they can have a pelagic occurrence. Stomach analysis has also shown that the diet consists mostly of pelagic or bathypelagic organisms. Even though the Greenland halibut is a flatfish it does at times behave more like a roundfish.

Sustainable consumption[edit]

In 2010, Greenpeace International has added the Greenland halibut to its seafood red list. "The Greenpeace International seafood red list is a list of fish that are commonly sold in supermarkets around the world, and which have a very high risk of being sourced from unsustainable fisheries."[1]

References[edit]

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